Maharashtra Board Class 10 Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 10 Disaster Management

Balbharti Maharashtra State Board Class 10 Science Solutions Part 2 Chapter 10 Disaster Management Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.

Q.1. Multiple Choice Questions : 17

1. All are man made disasters except

a. Child labor b. Rapes c. Terrorism d. Hail storms

Ans Option d.

2. Headquarter of National Disaster Response Force is in

a. Delhi b. Mumbai c. Bangalore d. Chennai

Ans Option a.

3. All of the following are biological disasters except

a. Infectious diseases b. Forest fire c. Tsunami d. Plague

Ans Option c.

4. All of the following are geophysical disasters except

a. Poisonous gases b. Earthquakes c. Alkalization d. Volcano

Ans Option a.

5. All of the following are the methods of carrying victims at the site of accident except

a. Jaw thrust method b. Cradle method

c. Carrying on backs d. Carrying on two hands

Ans Option a.

6. What will you do, if the domestic gas cylinder bursts?

a. Sprinkle water.

b. Throw soil or sand.

c. Cover the cylinder with wet bed sheet.

d. Run away.

Ans Option c.

7. What should be done if the gas cylinder at your home catches fire?

a.Water should be sprinkled.

b. Sand, soil should be put at it.

c. Cylinder should be covered with wet blanket.

d. One should run away.

Ans Option c.

8. Which of the following is a man-made disaster ?

a. Earthquake b. Flood c. Meteoric d. Leakage of toxic gases

Ans Option d.

9. Which of the following is man-made disaster ?

a. Forced migration b. Floods c. Infectious diseases d. Erosion

Ans Option a.

10. Mock drill includes which of the following activities ?

a. Demonstrations like extinguishing the fire.

b. Rescuing the people trapped at higher floors of buildings.

c. Rescuing the persons whose clothing have caught fire.

d. All of the above.

11. Who is responsible is responsible for designing the schemes for each district, separately for each type of disaster and getting those sanctioned from state-level authorities.

a. District Collector b. Tahsildar c. Chief minister d. Sarpanch

Ans Option a.

Ans Option d.

12. Which of the following is objective of first aid ?

a.Preventing deterioration of condition of victims of disaster

b. Saving lives

c. Relieving the pains

d. All of the above

Ans Option d.

13. Who is responsible for designing the schemes for each district, separately for each type of disaster and getting those sanctioned from state-level authorities ?

a. District Collector b. Tahsildar c. Chief minister d. Sarpanch

Ans Option a.

14. All of the following are destructive effects of flood except –

a. Collapsing of bridges

b. Developing cracks in the land

c. Flooding of coastal villages

d. Shortage of food

Ans Option b.

15. All of the following are biological disasters of animal origin except –

a. Hepatitis b. Fungal disease spreading c. Cholera d. Plague

Ans Option b.

16. All of the following are the international organizations that work for disaster management except.

a. United Nations Disaster Relief Organization

b. World Health Organization

c. United Nations Centre for Human Settlements

d. All of the above

Ans Option d.

17 . Action of National Disaster Response Force is in all over the country with the help of

a. Army b. Navy c. Police force d. There is a separate unit for this

Ans Option a.

Q. 2. Find the odd one out : 3

1.Famine: Various problems of crop, Strikes of workers, Earthquakes, Rising levels of oceans, Desertification

Ans Earthquakes, all the other are disasters of long duration, whose severity increases over the time.

2. Cyclones in Odisha, Earthquakes of Gujarat and Latur, Train accidents, Frequently buzzing cyclones in coastal Andhra Pradesh

Ans Train accidents, rest of them are catastrophic disasters.

3. Terrorism, Famine, Forest fire, Earthquakes, Tsunamis

Ans Terrorism, it is a man-made disaster while others are natural disasters.

Q.3. Find co-related terms 3

1. First aid phase : Phase of emergency :: Clearing of debris : ……………….

Ans First aid phase : Phase of emergency :: Clearing of debris : Transitional phase

2. Snowstorms : climatic type :: earthquake : ……………..

Ans Snowstorms : Climatic type :: earthquake : Geological type

3. Hepatitis : Animals :: Plants

Ans Hepatitis : Animals :: Blister disease : Plants

Q.4. Match the pair 7

1.

Column “A” Column “B”
i. Clearing of debris a. Phase of emergency
ii. Farming practices restarted b. Transitional phase
c. Reconstruction
Ans
i. Clearing of debris Transitional phase
ii. Farming practices restarted Reconstruction

2.

Column “A” Column “B”
i. Terrorism a. Plants
ii. Floods b. Man made
c. Animals
d. Atmospheric
Ans
i. Terrorism Man made
ii. Floods Atmospheric

3.

Column “A” Column “B”
i. Sudden increase in fund expenditure a. Environmental
ii. Collapsing transport system b. Economic
c. Administrative
Ans
i. Sudden increase in fund expenditure Economic
ii. Collapsing transport system Administrative

4.

Column “A” Column “B”
i. Weeds a. Animals
ii. Malaria b. Plants
c. Atmospheric
Ans
i. Weeds Plants
ii. Malaria Animals

5.

Column “A” Column “B”
i. Earthquakes a. Plants
ii. Wars b. Geological
c. Man made
Ans
i. Earthquakes Geological
ii. Wars Man made

6.

Column “A” Column “B
i. Police a. 108
ii. Fire fighting force b. 100
c. 102
d. 101
Ans
i. Police 100
ii. Fire fighting force 101

7.

Column “A” Column “B”
i. Partial or complete collapsing of buildings a. Medical
ii. Death of victims b. Economic
c. Environmental
d. Administrative
Ans
i. Partial or complete collapsing of buildings Environmental
ii. Death of victims Medical

Q.5. State True or False : 9

1. Disasters can be predicted, thus giving time us to take precautions.

Ans Disasters can be predicted, thus giving time us to take precautions. – False

2. If the local leadership is not strong, on the face of disaster entire system could collapse.

Ans If the local leadership is not strong, on the face of disaster entire system could collapse. – True

3. District collector is also responsible for designing the schemes for each district, separately for each type of disaster and getting those sanctioned from state-level authorities.

Ans District collector is also responsible for designing the schemes for each district, separately for each type of disaster and getting those sanctioned from state-level authorities. – True

4. Resurrection is a stage used for the welfare and rehabilition of the nation.

Ans Resurrection is a stage used for the welfare and rehabilition of the nation. – True

5. Period of each disaster is not same.

Ans Period of each disaster is not same. – True

6. Disaster management is either prevention of disasters or making arrangements to face it or at least achieve the abilities to face it.

Ans Disaster management is either prevention of disasters or making arrangements to face it or at least achieve the abilities to face it. – True

7. Disaster has no effect on the economy of the nation.

Ans Disaster has no effect on the economy of the nation.False

8. Rehabilitation work is started in reconstruction phase after the subsidence of any type of disaster.

Ans Rehabilitation work is started in reconstruction phase after the subsidence of any type of disaster.- False

9. Disasters are never planned but losses due it can be prevented in a planned manner.

Ans Disasters are never planned but losses due it can be prevented in a planned manner. – True

Q. 7. Name the following : 25

1. Identify the type of disaster. Theft

Ans Intentional, man-made disaster.

2. Explain the meaning of following symbols.

Ans : Generic Danger

3. An important link between emergency measures and national progress that is used for the welfare and rehabilitation of the nation.

Ans : Resurgence

4. Identify the type of disaster. Hepatitis

Ans : Biological disaster caused by viruses.

5. Explain the meaning of following symbols

Ans : Risk of Explosion

6. Explain the meaning of following symbols. :

Ans Oxidant Material

7. Explain the meaning of following symbols.

Ans Environmentally hazardous

8. Identify the type of disaster. Soil erosion

Ans Geological disaster

9. The phase in which maximum lives can be saved by quick actions.

Ans Phase of emergency.

10. Explain the meaning of following symbols .

.

Ans Danger highly flammable.

11. An important link between measures after disaster and national development.

Ans Restoration

12. Identify the type of disaster. Forest fire

Ans Biological disaster

(Note : It can also be classified as man-made disaster in certain cases.)

13. A highly complicated phase which begins in transitional phase itself.

Ans Reconstruction phase

14. Explain the meaning of following symbols.

Ans Toxic

15. Explain the meaning of following symbols.

Ans Health Hazard.

16. Explain the meaning of following symbols:

Ans Compressed Gas

17. A practice to check the preparedness of facing a disaster as early as possible.

Ans Mock drill

18. A sudden event that leads to a huge loss of life and property.

Ans Disaster

19. Identify the type of disaster. Famine

Ans Atmospheric, geophysical disaster

20 Identify the type of disaster. Terrorism

Ans Intentional, man-made of disaster

21 There is an oil layer on the water surface of river in your area. What will you do ?

Ans We can clear the oil with the help of microles such as pseudomonas (any other name can also be given)

22. Primary help before actual medical treatment, for the victims of disaster.

Ans First Aid

23. Explain the meaning of following symbols.

Ans Dangerous or corrosive acid.

24. The phase in which rehabilitation work is started after the subsidence of any type of disaster.

Ans Transitional phase

25. Geophysical disasters.

Ans Earthquake, volcano, tsunami, land-slides, land-fall, erosion, alkalization, flooding.

Q. 7. Give scientific reasons 6

1. It is essential to get the training of first aid.

Ans i. Training of First aid can be of great use especially at the face of disaster.

ii. A trained person can work in right direction towards saving life, relieving the pain and preventing deterioration of condition of victims of disaster.

iii. In the absence of knowledge one might not be able to save or relieve the victim even if he intends to do so, infact can also harm the victim.

2. Effective disaster management makes us well prepared for future.

Ans i. Disaster management involves achieving the abilities to face disasters in the future.

ii. It involves planning to minimize the losses due to disasters.

Improvement in the ability to face disasters is achieved time to time through scientific and careful

iii. observations and data analysis.

Hence, it is said that effective disaster management makes us well prepared for future.

3. Increase in human disasters after the World War-II ?

Ans i. After World War II, ever increasing human population and their increasing needs have put burden on limited resources.

ii. As a result situations like economic inequality, racial and religious differences, social differences arose which gave rise to instability.

iii. This is the reason for increase in human disasters like war, Incidences of terrorism, riots, abduction etc. These are on rise in these days.

Q. 8. Write properties/characteristics/uses/advantage/effects. 8

1. Objectives of Mock Drill.

Ans i. Evaluating the response to the disaster.

ii. Improving the coordination between various departments of disaster control.

iii. Identification of own abilities.

iv. Improving the ability of quick response to disaster.

vi. Checking the competency of the planned actions.

v. Identifying the possible errors and risks.

2. Write the effects of drought.

Ans:  Effects:

i. Decreased in the production of food grains.
ii. Destruction of farms.
iii. The livelihood of people is affected.
iv. Losses or destruction of fish and wildlife habitat.

3. Objectives of disasters management.

Ans: i. Disposal of human life suffered by human being during the calamity and release of the people.

ii. Supply of essential commodities of the people to reduce the effect of disaster.

iii.The restore the human life in the region by creating reconciliation in disaster.

iv. Rehabitant disaster victims.

v. Considering protective measure in disaster, such disaster will not reach in future and slop take care to reduce their intensity.

4. Which are the effects of dry famine ?

Ans i. Regional malnutrition

ii. Starvation iii. Epidemic

iv. Increased mortality

v. Long term economic loss of country

Q. 9. Write Short Notes: 18

1. Write short note on Disaster Management Act, 2005.

Ans i. The Disaster Management Act has been enacted in the year 2005 for controlling the disasters in the country.

ii. As per the Disaster Management Act, disaster management authorities have been set-up at different levels

  • National, State, District, Taluka, Village.

iii. The national Disaster Response Force has been established as per the Disaster Management Act, 2005.

Iv . The personnel of National Disaster Response Force make substantial contributions in rescue work in disasters like cyclones, building collapse, cliff-sliding, etc.

2. Write short note on Radiation leakage in Chernobyl, Russia.

Ans i. This atomic energy plant was only used for electricity generation.

ii. Radiation leakage occurred after a blast in atomic energy plant at Chernobyl, Russia. Its ill-effects are still experienced in the region.

iii. Chernobyl witnessed the world’s worst nuclear disaster in 1986 just due to human error.

iv. Although radiation level has been reduced the town is still not inhabitable at least for another 22000 years.

3. Write short note on Mock drills.

Ans It is a practice to check the preparedness of facing the disaster as early as possible. Virtual/Apparent situation of disaster is created to check the reaction time for any type of disaster. Trained personnel observe their responsibilities to check execution of plan designed for disaster redressal. This helps to check the efficacy of the system prepared for disaster redressal. Mock drill is arranged on disaster of fire in various schools by the fire fighters. It includes the demonstrations like extinguishing the fire, rescuing the people trapped at higher floors of buildings, rescuing the persons whose clothings catch fire, etc. Such activities are also arranged by police force and voluntary organizations.

4. Write short note on Nature of disaster management.

Ans i. Disaster management is used to overcome disasters of any kind. e.g. minor or major, short-time or long- time.

ii. A close relationship between disaster management and public participation exist.

iii. Disasters are never planned but losses due to them can be minimized in a planned manner by disaster management.

iv. Disaster Management involves making arrangements to face disasters or at least achieving te abilities to face them.

v. The improvement in ability to face disasters is achieved through scientific and careful observation and data analysis.

5. Write short note on Post-disaster management.

Ans i. It includes providing all types of necessary help to victims of disasters.

ii. Participation of preferably local peoples saved from the disaster in arranging the help to victims.

iii.Quick establishment of help centre. Different types of disasters need different types of control centres.

iv. Categorization of the help material received from control centre, delivering the material to victims and continuous review of the help.

v. Being always prepared for disaster rescue.

6. Write short note on Emergency Actions.

Ans i. In emergency condition, various transportation methods like cradle method, carrying on back, carrying on two hands are to be followed.

ii. Those methods depend upon the condition of victim.

iii. We face different types of major or minor disasters in our daily life.

iv. Varieties of disasters like accidents, stampede, injuries in fighting, electric shock, burns, heat shock, snake bite, dog bite, fire due to electric short circuit, epidemic of any disease, etc. happen around us.

v. Victims of disaster need to be offered some primary help before actual medical treatment.

vi. First aid is useful in such circumstances.

7. Write short note on Disaster and its management.

Ans i. A disaster is a destructive event that occurs suddenly and involves loss of life and property.

ii. Disasters can be of two types, natural and man-made. It is a sudden accident or a natural catastrophe that causes great damage or loss of life.

iii. Disaster Management refers to the measures taken for the safety and protection of life and property from natural or man-made disasters.

iv. Disasters are never planned but losses due to them can be prevented in a planned manner.

v. This means being prepared for disasters, fighting disasters effectively, ensuring the safety of life during disasters and helping in rebuilding society after the disaster.

vi. When a disaster strikes a society, external help is usually needed in the form of aid to cope with its impact.

vii. Increasing awareness about disaster management among the general public through training programs, mass media etc. will enable them to be always prepared for disaster rescue.

8. Write short note on Disaster Management Authority.

Ans i. The Disaster Management Authority has been established at the Government level for controlling disasters.

ii. The function of control and coordination under Disaster Management takes place from national to village level.

Name of Authority Chairman
National Disaster Management Authority Prime Minister
State Disaster Management Authority Chief Minister
District Disaster Management Collector
Taluka Disaster Management Authority Tahsildar
Village Level Committee Sarpanch

iii. The National, State and District Disaster Management Authorities provide precautionary warning about disasters.

iv. The District, Taluka and Village level authorities form the system involved in actual rescue and rehabilitation work.

9. Write short note on Pre-disaster management.

Ans This includes the complete preparation and planning to face any type of disaster. For that purpose.

i. Identifying the pro-disaster areas. Collecting the information about

ii. intensity of disaster and probable sites of disasters through predictive intensity maps and hazard maps respectively.

iii. Getting special training for disaster management.

iv. Increasing awareness about disaster management among the general public through training programmes, mass media.

Q. 10. Complete the given flow chart / table 6

  1.   
Ans:


2.

 

Ans:


3.       3.

Ans:

Q.11. Distinguish between:  2

1. Pre- disaster management and Post-disaster management.

Ans
Pre- disaster Post-disaster
It comes into action even before the disaster occurs to prevent the loss from coming event predicted.
i. It comes into action after the disaster has taken place.
ii The pre-disaster area is uncertain. The disaster area is certain after occurrence.
It includes precaution and prevention method for the predicted disaster. It includes quick actions, medical facilities,etc. for the victims of the occurred disaster.
iii.
It has different preparatory events as Mock drills to be alert regarding the disaster foreseen. It includes various phases as emergency phase, rehabilitation phase, reconstruction phase, etc. to overcome the loss in the disaster.
iv.

Q.12. Give examples: 8

1. Man-made intentional disasters

Ans War, fire, bomb blast, forced migration, terrorism, rapes and child labour.

2. Geological disasters

Ans Earthquakes, tsunami, volcano, landslides, erosion, flood.

3. Name 4 international organizations that work for disaster management.

Ans i. United Nations Disaster Relief Organization.

ii. United Nations Centre for Human Settlements.

iii. Asian Disaster Reduction Centre.

iv. Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre.

v. World Health Organization.

vi. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

4. Methods used for transportation of patients.

Ans Cradle method, Carrying piggy back method, Human crutch method, Pulling or lifting method, Two hand chair method, Four hand chair method, Stretcher.

Q.13. Give explanation using the given statements. 3

1. Atomic energy is a risk of disaster. Explain

Ans i. There is a great threat to human being is from the atomic energy plants.

ii. Ex. Radiation leakage occurred after a blast in atomic energy plant at Chernobyl, Russia.

iii. Its ill-effects are still experienced in the region. This atomic energy plant was only used for electricity generation.

iv. Now a day, many countries are equipped with atomic energy. Out of this, risk of radiation leakage is increasing due to carelessness.

v. Hence, importance of disaster management has become the foremost need of almost all the nations.

vi. In fact, it is most necessary for citizens of all countries, because they are the main sufferers in any type of disaster.

Q.14. Suggest remedies / measures 9

1. Write remedies for drought.

Ans:  Remedies:-

i. Water conservation and storage.
ii. Taking measures to prevent air and water pollution.
iii. Rainwater harvesting.
iv. Nations must limit the amount of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth’s atmosphere.
v. Interlinking of national water resources (rivers). Water management can be much better that way.
vi. Dams and other water storage mechanism need to be in place.

2. State the remedies of motor accident and land sliding.

Ans *Motor Accident Remedies:-

a. Following the traffic signals.

b. Do not drink and drive.

c. Do not talk on mobiles while driving.

* Land Sliding Remedies :-

a. Increase in vegetation cover.

b. Planting trees on slopes.

c. Afforestation

  1. Cutting of trees should be avoided.

E . Natural water streams should not be obstructed during construction.

3. State the type of disaster. Which precautions would you take during those disasters?

Ans i. Stay calm! If you’re indoors, stay inside. If you’re outside, stay outside.

ii. If you’re indoors, stand against a wall near the center of the building, stand in a doorway, or crawl under heavy furniture (a desk or table). Stay away from windows and outside doors.

iii. If you’re outdoors, stay in the open away from power lines or anything that might fall. Stay away from

buildings (stuff might fall off the building or the building could fall on you).

iv. Don’t use matches, candles, or any flame. Broken gas lines and fire don’t mix.

v. If you’re in a car, stop the car and stay inside the car until the earthquake stops.

Q.15. Explain the diagram : 6

1. Observe the given picture and explain what would be the steps for pre-diaster management in case if you face this disaster ?

Ans The picture shows a cyclone.

Pre-diaster management :

i.If residing in cyclone prone areas or near sea coasts, keep supplies such as flashlight and extra batteries, candles, first aid kit, emergency dry food items and drinking water, essential medicines, cash, etc., ready.

ii.In case of getting notice from the authorities and if living on the coast, or on a flood – plain, near a river, etc., evacuate immediately.

iii. Ensure that the trees and shrubs around your home or building are well trimmed.

iv. In villagers and rural places, it should be ensured that the roof is secured properly to the frame or the house structure.

v. Listen to the radio or TV for information and turn-off utilities and turn off utilities if instructed to do so.

2. Observe the given picture and explain what would be the steps for post-disaster management in case you face this disaster ?


Ans The picture shows a gas leak from an LPG cylinder.

Post – diaster management :

I. Do not try to turn ON or turn OFF any electrical appliances in the surrounding area.

ii. Put out all flames, incense sticks, etc.

iii . Turn off the LPG regulator and immediately put on the safety cap.

iv. Open all the windows and doors to ensure ventilation.

v. Get in touch with the LPG cylinder dealer immediately.

Q.16. Complete the table/ web/ flow chart 6

1. Identify the type of disaster

Disaster Type
a. Terrorism
b. Soil erosion
c. Hepatitis
d. Forest Fire
e. Famine
f. Theft

Ans

Disaster Type
a. Terrorism International disaster (Man – made)
b. Soil erosion Geological disaster (Natural)
c. Hepatitis Biological disaster (Natural)
d. Forest Fire Biological disaster
e. Famine Atmospheric disaster (Natural)
f. Theft Man-made disaster

2. Complete the table.

i.. Disasters a. ……………
ii.. …………… b. It is a practice to check the preparedness of facing the disaster as early as possible.
iii . Transitional phase
c. ……………
d. It is an important link between emergency measures and national progress and is used for the welfare and rehabilitation of the nation.
iv. ……………
Ans:
i. Disasters a. Sudden event that leads to huge loss of life and property.
ii. Mock drill b. It is a practice to check the preparedness of facing the disaster as early as possible.
iii. Transitional phase
c. Rehabilitation work is started.
d. It is an important link between emergency measures and national progress and is used for the welfare and rehabilitation of the nation.
iv. Resurgence

Q.17. Explain with the help of examples : 3

1. Explain with the help of examples: Natural and Man-made disasters.

Ans i. Natural disasters:

These are ‘all of a sudden’ troubles to the mankind. Suchevents cause sudden changes in the environment and thereby cause the damage to it. These are called Natural disasters.

Examples: Earthquakes, Tsunamis, Floods, Famine, Volcanic eruptions, Forest fire.

ii. Man-made disasters :

Environment is also damaged due to use of natural resources for our development. This leads to sudden disasters, unexpected to human. These are called as man-made disasters.

Examples of Man-made disasters: War, Fire, atomic blast, Radiation leak, Poisonous gases, Terrorism, Rapes, Child labour.

Q.18. Complete the sentences in paragraph 15

1. Complete the paragraph:

(precautions, disasters, scientists, mankind, United Nations, Environment, predicted, man-made)

Variously dangerous events occur many times in the environment. Those are called as Some of the main natural disasters are floods, wet and dry famines, cyclones, earthquakes, volcanoes, etc. These are ‘all of a sudden’ troubles to Such events cause sudden changes in the environment and thereby cause damage to it. is also damaged due to the use of natural resources for our development. This leads to sudden disasters, unexpected to humans. These can be called…………… disasters. has defined disaster as ‘the sudden event that leads to the huge loss of life and property. Words like ‘huge’ and ‘sudden’ are important in the definition. As the disaster occurs suddenly, it cannot be predicted. Hence,…………… are not possible.

Ans Variously dangerous events occur many times in the environment. Those are called as disasters. Some of the main natural disasters are floods, wet and dry famine, cyclones, earthquakes, volcanoes, etc. These are ‘all of a sudden’ troubles to the mankind. Such events cause sudden changes in the environment and thereby cause the damage to it. Environment is also damaged due to use of natural resources for our development. This leads to sudden disasters, unexpected to human. These can be called as man-made disasters. United Nations has defined the disaster as ‘the sudden event that leads to the huge loss of life and property. Words like ‘huge’ and ‘sudden’ are important in the definition. As the disaster occurs suddenly, it cannot be predicted. Hence, precautions are not possible.

2. In emergency condition, various transportation methods like cradle method, carrying on back, carrying on two hands are to be followed. Those methods depend upon the condition of We face different types of major or minor disasters in our daily life. Varieties of disasters like accidents, stampedes, injuries in fighting, electric shock, burns, heat shock, snake bites, dog bites, fires due to electric short circuits, epidemics of any disease, etc. happen around us. Victims of disaster need to be offered some help before actual medical treatment. is useful in such circumstances.

It is essential to have the material necessary for first aid with us. That material is available in the first aid kit. You can also prepare a first aid kit. It is also important to use whatever material is available in the given condition for first aid.

i. Fill in the blanks in the paragraph. (1 mark)

ii. Give any four important materials from a first aid kit. (2 marks)

Ans :  i. primary, first aid, victim.

Bandage strips of different size, Wound gauze, Triangular and circular bandage, Medicated cotton, Hand

ii.gloves, Clean and dry cloth pieces, Soap, Antiseptic (Dettol/ Savlon), Safety pins, Blade, Small pins, Needle, Band aid, Torch, etc.

3. Complete the paragraph :

(transitional, World War-II, Asian, American, Indian, natural disasters, reconstruction, Pacific)

This is highly complicated phase. This phase begins in phase. People reconstruct their buildings and facilities like roads and water supply are restored. Farming practices are restarted. However, it takes long time for ……………. Planet Earth has experienced many …………… disasters. Listening to the description of those disasters brings numbness to the mind. Most of the disasters and related unprecedented situations have been occurred in the …………… continent and region of Ocean. Huge loss to the life and the planet Earth has been occurred due to such disasters. Generally, such conditions of natural imbalance have been arisen due to greed of economic progress of human being. In reality, old problems of several years have become fierce. Ex. Increasing population, its increasing needs emerging problems out of it are now at the extreme end. Such disasters have been increased after the Condition of instability arises in the country due to various reasons like economic inequality, racial and religious differences, etc.

Ans :  This is highly complicated phase. This phase begins in transitional phase. People reconstruct their buildings and facilities like roads and water supply are restored. Farming practices are restarted. However, it takes long time for reconstruction Planet Earth has experienced many natural disasters. Listening to the description of those disasters brings numbness to the mind. Most of the disasters and related unprecedented situations have been occurred in the Asian continent and region of Pacific Ocean. Huge loss to the life and the planet Earth has been occurred due to such disasters. Generally, such conditions of natural imbalance have been arisen due to greed of economic progress of human being. In reality, old problems of several years have become fierce. Ex. Increasing population, its increasing needs emerging problems out of it are now at the extreme end. Such disasters have been increased after the World War-II Condition of instability arises in the country due to various reasons like economic inequality, racial and religious differences, etc.

4. Complete the paragraph:

(long time, mental stress, Rehabilitation, physical health, simple,less efforts, transitional phase, complicated , victims)

Transitional Phase :

…………… work is started in this phase, after the subsidence of any type of disaster. It includes clearing of debris, restoring water supply, repairing roads, etc. so that it will help to bring normalcy in public life. Rehabilitation of the …………… is important aspect of this phase. Generally, different institutes offer the monetary and other type of help to such people. It helps to soothe the at the earliest if these victims

are offered with the permanent mean of earning livelihood and this is true rehabilitation.

Reconstruction Phase :

This is highly …………… phase. This phase begins in …………… . People reconstruct their buildings and facilities like roads and water supply are restored. Farming practices are restarted. However, it takes

…………… for reconstruction.

Ans : Transitional Phase :

Rehabilitation work is started in this phase, after the subsidence of any type of disaster. It includes clearing of debris, restoring water supply, repairing roads, etc. so that it will help to bring normalcy in public life. Rehabilitation of the victims is important aspect of this phase. Generally, different institutes offer the monetary and other type of help to such people. It helps to soothe the mental stress at the earliest if these victims are offered with the permanent mean of earning livelihood and this is true rehabilitation.

Reconstruction Phase :

This is highly complicated phase. This phase begins in transitional phase. People reconstruct their buildings and facilities like roads and water supply are restored. Farming practices are restarted. However, it takes long time for reconstruction.

5. Complete the paragraph

( Capability, Rehabilitation, Commodities, Human, objectives, normalcy, amusements )

The …………… of disaster management comprises of the following aspects. life is saved from the disasters. People are helped to move away from the place of disasters. They are given essential …………… by the government so that the gravity of disaster is reduced. The disaster conditions are brought back to…………… . …………… of the affected and displaced victims is done. Moreover, protective measures for the future are also planned to develop among the people to face any possible disasters in the future.

Ans : The objectives of disaster management comprises the following aspects. Human life is saved from disasters. People are helped to move away from the place of disasters. They are given essential commodities by the government so that the gravity of disaster is reduced. The disaster conditions are brought back to normalcy. Rehabilitation of the affected and displaced victims is done. Moreover, protective measures for the future are also planned to develop the capability among the people to face any possible disasters in the future.

Q.19. Write answers based on given diagram/ figure : 9

1. Identify the following disasters and write their symptoms.

Ans The following disasters are flood and forest fire.

Flood symptoms:-
  1. Choking of gutters and drainage lines.
  2. Strong winds in coastal areas.
  3. Breaking of dams.
Forest Fire symptoms:-
  1. Rising temperature
  2. Lightening
  3. Campfires
  4. Volcanic eruptions
  5. Global warming
2.

i.Why are signs and symbols used?

ii. Give any two places where the above signs are used?

iii. What would you do if you see the risk of a flammable gas leak?

Ans i. Sometimes, we have to face disaster due to our own unawareness. Some signs and symbols are seen used around us. Those symbols should not be ignored as such symbols are useful to avoid mishaps.

ii. Tankers, Laboratories, Gas containers, etc.

iii. If I happen to observe the risk of a flammable gas leak, the first step would be close the main knob, if any which controls the gas supply. There should be no fire or electricity around the area, if there is, must be turned off immediately.Open all the doors and windows so the gas can move out of the accumulated area.

3 Observe the images ‘A’ & ‘B’ and answer the following questions.

i. Which disasters are shown in the images?

ii. Which primary precautions will you take in case of disaster shown in ‘A’? iii.Which type of first-aid is offered to the injured peoples in disaster ‘B’?

Ans i. Earthquake is shown in the image ‘A’ whereas fire is shown in ‘B’.

  1. Precautions to be taken during earthquake- Do not helter-skelter, be calm, hide below the table / cot, switch-off the power supply, use torch if necessary instead of lamps burning fossil fuels. Stay in the vehicle if in journey; do not stop near building / trees / electric poles.
  2. If fire is caught by clothing of victim, douse it with water, wash the burn-wounds with clean water, offer water to drink, clean the wounds with antiseptic solution, cover it with clean, dry bandage, contact the doctor.

Q. 20. Answer the following : 18

1. Taking into consideration the nature and scope of disaster, which aspects of disaster are important for common citizens ?

Ans Phase of emergency: Important character of this phase is that maximum lives can be saved by quick actions during this phase only. Various actions like search and rescue operations, medical assistance, first aid, restoring communication services, removing the people from affected area are expected in this phase. Gravity of disaster can be estimated in this phase only.

Transitional Phase: Rehabilitation work is started in this phase, after the subsidence of any type of disaster. It includes clearing of debris, restoring water supply, repairing roads, etc. so that it will help to bring normalcy in public life. Rehabilitation of the victims is important aspect of this phase. Generally, different institutes offer the monetary and other type of help to such people. It helps to soothe the mental stress at the earliest if these victims are offered with the permanent mean of earning livelihood and this is true rehabilitation.

Reconstruction Phase: People reconstruct their buildings and facilities like roads and water supply are restored. Farming practices are restarted. However, it takes long time for reconstruction.

2. The role of district disaster control unit after occurrence of any disaster is important. Discuss.

Ans District control unit is established immediately either after the impact of disaster or getting intimation about it. Its roles are :

    1. It reviews about various aspects of disaster, keeps continuous contact with various agencies like army, air force, navy, telecommunication department, paramilitary forces, etc. for getting help.
    2. It is also responsible for coordinating with various voluntary organizations for their help in disaster management.

3. What is disaster ? Which are two main types of disasters ?

Ans United Nations has defined the disaster as ‘the sudden event that leads to the huge loss of life and property’.

Natural disasters: These are ‘all of a sudden’ troubles to the mankind. Such events cause sudden a.changes in the environment and thereby cause the damage to it. Examples are floods, wet and dry famine,

cyclones, earthquakes, volcanoes, etc.

b.Man-made disasters: Environment is also damaged due to use of natural resources for our development. This leads to sudden disasters, unexpected to human. Examples: war, fire, bomb fire, poisonous gases.

4. What do you think about the importance of Mock drills.

Ans i. It is a practice to check the preparedness of facing the disaster as early as possible.

  1. Virtual / Apparent situation of disaster is created to check the reaction time for any type of disaster.
  2. Trained personnel observe their responsibilities to check execution of plan designed for disaster redressal. This helps to check the efficacy of the system prepared for disaster redressal.
  3. Mock drill is arranged on disaster of fire in various schools by the fire fighters.
  4. It includes the demonstrations like extinguishing the fire, rescuing the people trapped at higher floors of buildings, rescuing the persons whose clothings catch fire, etc.
  5. Such activities are also arranged by police force and voluntary organizations. Therefore, Mock drills are important.

5. Explain in brief the sensitive issues of general public about disaster?

Ans i. Sensitive issues about disaster: loss of life, financial loss, injuries, spreading of diseases, post-disaster rehabilitation.

  1. Loss of life occurs in various types of disasters. If the sole earning member dies in the disaster, livelihood of the family becomes difficult.
  2. Family faces a huge economic loss due to burning the home to ashes in fire.
  3. Post-disaster rehabilitation is also a sensitive issue. Many times, there is delay in financial help from the government authorities. It is highly appreciable to raise the fund and extend helping hand on the part of society.

6. Mock drills :

It is a practice to check the preparedness of facing the disaster as early as possible. Virtual / Apparent situation of disaster is created to check the reaction time for any type of disaster. Trained personnel observe their responsibilities to check execution of plan designed for disaster redressal. This helps to check the efficacy of the system prepared for disaster redressal. Mock drill is arranged on disaster of fire in various schools by the fire fighters. It includes the demonstrations like extinguishing the fire, rescuing the people trapped at higher floors of buildings, rescuing the persons whose clothing have catched the fire, etc. Such activities are also arranged by police force and voluntary organizations.

i. How is the reaction of any person checked during a disaster ?

ii. Who arranges the Mock drills and where ?

iii. What are the activities taught at a Mock drill ?

Ans i. Virtual/Apparent situation of disaster is created to check the reaction time of the person for any type of disaster.

ii. Mock drill is arranged on the disaster of fire in various schools by the firefighters.

iii. Mock drill includes the demonstrations like extinguishing the fire, rescuing people trapped on higher floors of buildings, rescuing persons whose clothing has caught fire, etc.

Q. 21. Answer the following in detail 55

1. Which are the destructive effects of floods ?

Ans:

2. Effects of disaster:

We have understood the serious effects of a disaster. Collapsing of bridges, flooding of coastal villages, and shortage of food are some of the problems of floods. Collapsing of houses, and developing cracks in the land are some of the effects of earthquakes. Disasters like forest fires and droughts also adversely affect the environment. However, what is the exact nature of these disasters? Whether there are any changes in nature before the occurrence of disasters? For how long did the effects occur after the occurrence of the disaster? How? It needs to be thought over all these aspects. This helps us to understand the nature and gravity of the disaster. Disasters definitely affect the economy of the nation. That effect is always relative to disaster and the economy i.e. if any port is destroyed, there are long-lasting effects on the economy due to huge expenses on its reconstruction. An effect of the disaster on social leadership is that if local leadership is not strong enough, citizens become confused. It affects their participation in rescue and rehabilitation activities. Administrative problems arise during the disaster. If local governing bodies are affected by disasters, related departments cannot answer the problems of disaster efficiently. All the concerned departments are affected by the disaster and thereby entire system collapses.

i. Why do we need to study the aspects of a disaster? (1 mark)

ii. Give any two disasters other than the ones mentioned in the paragraph. (1 mark)

iii. Give any two types of disasters. (1 mark)

iv. How does a system collapse after a disaster? (2 mark)

Ans I. We need to understand the aspects of a disaster as it helps us to understand the nature and gravity of the disaster.

ii. Poisonous gas release, Damage of man-made infrastructures, Infections due to bacteria or fungus, etc. [any 2]

iii. Geophysical, Biological, Man Made [any 2]

An effect of the disaster on social leadership is that if local leadership is not strong enough, citizen become

iv. confused. It affects their participation in rescue and rehabilitation activities. Administrative problems arise during the disaster. If local governing bodies are affected by disasters, related departments cannot answer the problems of disaster efficiently. All the concerned departments are affected by disaster and thereby entire system collapses.

3. With the help of a flow chart explain the function of control and coordination under disaster management from the national to the village level.

Ans

4. What will be the effect on yourself and surrounding, if any accident-like disaster occurs during the sports on the playground or in school? (any 5)

Ans:

Environmental:

Partial or complete collapsing of buildings, drying out of water sources, contamination of water, Stinky pollution of environment due to decomposing corpses of humans and other animals.

Administrative/Professional : Stress on workers, collapsing of transport system, shortage of facilities, etc.

Loss of life and economy may negatively affect social life. People will be busy

Social:

with rehabilitation. People have some psychological impact also. They don’t have time and interest in social life.

Medical: Injuries, emotional/mental stress, increase in epidemics, death of victims.

Administrative problems arise during disasters. If the local leadership is not

Political:

strong enough, there is lot of chaos and confusion thereby entire system collapses.

Economic: Sudden increase in fund expenditure, shortage of funds for development of other sectors, decrease in productivity.

4. How can disasters be classified depending upon various criteria ?

Ans

5. i. Lack of management of which factor is shown in the picture?

ii. How can that factor be managed with the help of microbes? iii.How the oil spills in oceans are cleared?

Ans i. The picture shows the lack of management of waste water / sewage.

  1. Microbes which can decompose any compound as well as destroy the pathogens of cholera, typhoid, etc. are mixed with sewage. They release methane and CO2 by decomposition of the carbon compounds present in sewage. Phenol oxidizing bacteria decompose the xenobiotic chemicals present in sewage.
  2. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria like Alcanivorax borkumensis & Pseudomonas are used to clear the oil spillage from ocean water. These bacteria decompose the hydrocarbons and the bring about the reaction of released carbon with oxygen to produce CO2 & water.

6. On the basis of the structure of disaster management authority, form the same for your school.

Awareness Generation Team
Warning and Information Dissemination Group
Disaster Response Group
Evacuation Team First Aid Team
Site Safety Team Fire Safety Team
Search and Rescue Team Bus Safety Team
Ans :
Awareness Generation Team Comprising of Principal, Vice-Principal and HOD.
Warning and Information Dissemination Group Comprises of two teachers
Disaster Response Group
Evacuation Team First Aid Team
Includes one person each from NCC, Scouts, NSS, class

monitor.

Scouts teacher, NCC student head, class

teachers.

Site Safety Team Fire Safety Team
Two teachers, class monitors, school captains Students (IX, X divisions), Teachers.
Search and Rescue Team Bus Safety Team
School captains, Class monitors, Scout and NCC

participants.

Two teachers, bus staff.

7. Name the safety, effects & remedy of the given below disasters.

  1. Motor accident ii. land sliding

Ans Motor accident: Safety measures taken after accident –

iSafety of accident victims, rescuers, emergency personnel and other road users.

ii.First hour after an accident is called the Golden Hour – seriously injured car crash victims if get comprehensive medical care within 60 minutes, chances of survival increases. At the

accident scene, this scenario leaves about 12 minutes to extricate the wounded and take them to the hospital.

iii. Secure the accident scene, with the help of pre-warning vehicle, staff, red flags and sign trailers should be erected at the appropriate distance so that the motorist can reduce their

speeds.

iv. Follow the traffic rules. Look at left and right sides while crossing the road and ensure that any vehicle in not passing by.

v. Do not make chaos at the crowded places.

At the site of accidents there is the potential for unstable energy sources like puddles of

Effect of accident –

leaking corrosives, flames, or exposed electrical wires, or they may be more covert, such as an unstable wall, an undeployed vehicle air bag, or a high tension cable that can be re‐ energized without warning. One must have knowledge to look out for them.

Remedies – i. Learning from past accidents can prevent accidents from happening again.

ii. Sign boards and marking on roads can be done at the areas with blind turns or accident prone zones.

  1. Traffic lights at signals should be working( people should follow them).

Land Slides: Safety protocols –

i.Keep yourself alert and awake.

ii. Listen to a local news station for updates. Using a battery-powered radio or television, iii. Iii. Evacuate if it is safe to do so.

iv. Be cautious and alert while driving through landslide prone areas.

v.Move out of the path of the landslide as quickly as possible, because one cant overrun landslides.

Effects – i. Loss of life (human, animals and plants).

ii. Damage to the property.

iii. Injured and trapped persons in landslides.

iv.Damaged roadways and railways.

v. Broken water lines and underground utility lines.

Remedies – i. The water should be diverted in such a way as to avoid triggering a landslide adjacent to the site.

ii.Surface water should not be allowed to pond on the landslide-prone slope.

iii. Ground water can be drained from the soil using trenches filled with gravel and perforated pipes or pumped water wells.

iv. The best way to avoid landslides is not to live or work in an area that has a landslide history.

v. Maintain as much vegetation as possible on the slope to help retain the soil.

We can look for leaning trees or trees with a bend in them, that indicates there was a vi.

previous slide at that location.

8. What is forest fire ? Explain atleast 4 effect on environment ?

Ans :

9. Explain the destructive effects of earthquake ?

Ans:

 

10.

i.What is the disaster observed in figure A? (1 mark)

ii.What is the disaster seen in figure B? (1 mark)

iii.What would you do when you see a victim of snake bite? (2 marks)

iv. Give any two examples of biological disasters? (1 mark)

Ans i. The disaster in figure A is an Earthquake.

ii. The disaster in Figure B is seen to be a House fire.

The victim of the snake bite should be asked to lie down and a piece of cloth should be tied near the area

iii.of snake bite tightly, on the side such that blood flow of the heart from that region should become very slow.If not, the poison can be removed on sucking the area of the bite so it does not mix with the blood. Then the victim should be taken to the nearby medical facility as early as possible.

Iv . Hepatitis B, Typhoid, Plague, Infectious viruses, bite of poisonous animal fungal disease spreading. [any 2]

Q. 22. Fill in the blank and rewrite the completed statements : 1

1. Collapsing of houses, developing cracks in land are some of the effects of ……………

Ans :  Collapsing of houses, developing cracks in land are some of the effects of earthquake.

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