Maharashtra board 10th science part 2 topic 8. Cell Biology and Biotechnology solution.

 Q.1. Multiple Choice Questions : 

 

  1. All of the following is true about biotechnology except –

a.Uses abilities of microbes like yoghurt production from milk and alcohol from molasses.

b. Production of antibiotics and vaccines, etc. with the help of  specific cells.

c.Use of bio-molecules like DNA and proteins in human welfare.

d.Used to create entirely new organ.

Ans Option d.

2. Stem cells are preserved in

  1. preserved in liquid hydrogen at -1350C to -1900C
  2. preserved in liquid nitrogen at -1350C to -1900C
  3. preserved in liquid propane at -1350C to -1900C
  4. preserved in refrigerator at -50C to- 100C

Ans Option b.

3. Which is true about Herbicide tolerant plants.

  1. Selectively destroy the weeds
  2. They have beneficisl effects on crops
  3. They have harmful effects on crops as well
  4. Nothing like this exists

Ans Option a.

4.Organs that cannot be donated during life time are all except

a.Kidney b. Liver c. Eyes d. Heart

Ans Option a.

5. Apiculture is……     a.Bee farming    b. Soilless farming

c. Worm farming d. None of the above

Ans Option a.

6. Genetically modified plants are all except ;

a.Golden Rice b. BT cotton c. BT brinjal d. Basmati rice

Ans Option d.

7.Which of the following vegetable is used for production of edible vaccine ?

BT Brinjal b. Brocolli c. Potato d. Cauliflower

Ans Option c.

8. Transplantation human organs act was passed in                              a. 1996 b. 1995 c. 1994 d. 1993

Ans Option c.

9. What is true about stem cells ?

a.they are Primary type of undifferentiated cells

b.They have self-multiplying ability

c.Are parent cells of all types of human cells.

d. All of the above are true

Ans Option d.

10. Cytology includes

a. structure, types and organelles of the cell

b. study of cell division

c. many other aspects of the cell

d. All of the above

Ans Option d.

11.Which of the following is medicinal plant –

a.Eucalyptus b. Adulsa c. Cinchona d. All of the above

Ans Option d.

12. Which plant is used as biofertilizer –

Rhizobium b. Azotobacter c. Nostoc d. Azolla

Ans Option d.

Q.2. Find the odd one out : 

  1.  DDT, Malathion, Chloropyriphos, Humus

Ans Humus(All others are insecticides).

2. Drying, Salting, Cooking, Soaking with sugar

Ans Cooking (All others are food preservative methods).

3.Diabetes, Anemia, Leukemia, Thalassemia

Ans Diabetes (All other diseases involve reduction in the number of blood cells).

Q.3. Find co-related terms 

1.: Dwarfism : Factor VIII : Hemophilia

Ans Somatostatin : Dwarfism : Factor VIII : Hemophilia

2. White revolution : Increase in dairy production : : Green revolution : ……………….

Ans White revolution : Increase in dairy production : : Green revolution : Increase in agricultural Production.

3. Interferon : : : Erythropoietin : Anaemia

Ans Interferon : Viral infection : : Erythropoietin : Anaemia

4. Phenylketonuria : Gene therapy : : Polio : ……………

Ans Phenylketonuria : Gene therapy : : Polio : Vaccination

5. White revolution : Dairy :: Blue revolution : ……………

Ans White revolution : Dairy :: Blue revolution : Fishery.

6. Nostac, Anabaena : Biofertilizers :: Alfalfa : ……………

Ans Nostac, Anabaena : Biofertilizers :: Alfalfa : Phytoremediation.

7. Insulin : Diabetes : : Interleukin : ……………

Ans Insulin : Diabetes : : Interleukin : Cancer

Q.4. Match the pair :

1

Column “A”

Column “B”

i.

ii.

 

a.

Technology based on biology that harnesses cellular and biomolecular processes to develop technologies and products that help improve our lives and the health of our planet.

Posthumous donation

 

Biotechnology

b.

Some organs like liver, heart, eyes can be donated after death only.

       

 

   

c.

Process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.

     
 

Ans: i.

Posthumousdonation

Some organs like liver, heart, eyes can be donated after death only.

   

Technology based on biology that harnesses cellular and biomolecular processes to develop technologies and products that help improve our lives and the health of our planet.

ii.

Biotechnology

   

2

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Deinococcus radiodurans

a. Can absorb uranium and arsenic

ii. Sunflower

b. Can absorb selenium from soil

 

c. Used to absorb the radiations from radioactive debris

Ans

i. Deinococcus radiodurans

Used to absorb the radiations from radioactive debris

ii. Sunflower

Can absorb uranium and arsenic

3

Column “A”

Column “B

i. Environment Biotechnology

a. Alcohol production with the help of transgenic yeast

ii. White Biotechnology

b. Microbial techniques used for sewage treatment

 

c. Used in treatment of anaemia

Ans

i. Environment Biotechnology

Used in treatment of anaemia

ii. White Biotechnology

Alcohol production with the help of transgenic yeast

4

Column “A”

Column “B”

i.

Cytology

a.

Cells with self-multiplying ability.

ii.

Pleuripotency

b.

Production of replica of any cell or organ or entire organism.

     

Study of Structure, types and organelles of the cell, cell division many other aspects of the cell.

   

c.

     

Ans

   

Study of Structure, types and organelles of the cell, cell division many other aspects of the cell.

i.

Cytology

   

ii.

Pleuripotency

Cells with self-multiplying ability.

5

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. National Institute of Immunology

a. Research on cells

ii. National Center for Cell Science in Pune

b. Research on crops

 

c. Biotechnology

Ans

i. National Institute of Immunology

Biotechnology

ii. National Center for Cell Science in Pune

Research on cells

6

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. White Biotechnology

a. Microbial techniques used for sewage treatment

   

ii. Erythropoietin

b. Alcohol production with the help of transgenic yeast

 

c. Used in treatment of anaemia

Ans

i. White Biotechnology

Alcohol production with the help of transgenic yeast

ii. Erythropoietin

Used in treatment of anaemia

7

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Pseudomonas bacteria

a. Can absorb the arsenic from the soil

ii. Pteris vitata

b. Used to absorb the radiations from radioactive debris

 

c. Cleaning the hydrocarbon & oil pollutants from soil, and water

Ans

i. Pseudomonas bacteria

Cleaning the hydrocarbon & oil pollutants from soil, and water

ii. Pteris vitata

Can absorb the arsenic from the soil

8

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Interferon

a. Hemophilia

ii. VIII Factor

b. Cancer

 

c. Viral infection

Ans

i. Interferon

Viral infection

ii. VIII Factor

Hemophilia

9

Column “A”

Column “B”

i.

 

a.

Various methods applied for harvesting maximum yield from minimum land, Improvised dwarf varieties of wheat and rice, proper use of fertilizers and pesticides and water management.

White revolution

 

ii.

Blue revolution

b.

Related with processing, quality control, preservation of milk and milk related products.

 

c.

Production of various useful aquatic organisms with the help of water.

Ans

10

 

White revolution

Related with processing, quality control, preservation of milk and milk related products.

i.

 

ii.

Blue revolution

Production of various useful aquatic organisms with the help of water.

Column “A”

Column “B”

 

Green revolution

 

Related with processing, quality control, preservation of milk and milk related products.

i.

a.

   
     

Various methods applied for harvesting maximum yield from minimum land, Improvised dwarf varieties of wheat and rice, proper use of fertilizers and pesticides and water management.

White revolution

ii.

b.

   
 
   

c.

Production of various useful aquatic organisms with the help of water.

Ans

   

Various methods applied for harvesting maximum yield from minimum land, Improvised dwarf varieties of wheat and rice, proper use of fertilizers and pesticides and water management.

Green revolution

i.

 
 

ii.

White

Related with processing, quality control, preservation of milk and milk related

 

revolution

products.

 

11

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Somatostatin

a. Diabetes

ii. Interleukin

b. Dwarfness

 

c. Cancer

Ans

i. Somatostatin

Dwarfness

ii. Interleukin

Cancer

12

Column “A”

Column “B”

i.

Bioremediation

a.

Production of replica of any cell or organ or entire organism.

ii.

Cloning

b.

Some organs like liver, heart, eyes can be donated after death only.

     

process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.

   

c.

     

Ans

   

Process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.

i.

Bioremediation

   

ii.

Cloning

Production of replica of any cell or organ or entire organism.

13

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI)

a. Biotechnology

ii. National Institute of Immunology

b. Research on cells

 

c. Research on crops

Ans

i. Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI)

Research on crops

ii. National Institute of Immunology

Biotechnology

14

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Sunflower

a. Used to absorb the radiations from radioactive debris

ii. Indian mustard

b. Can absorb uranium and arsenic

 

c. Can absorb selenium from soil

Ans

i. Sunflower

Can absorb uranium and arsenic

ii. Indian mustard

Can absorb selenium from soil

Q.5. State True or False :

 

  1. Development of Herbicide tolerant plants varieties of crops has made it possible to selectively destroy the weeds.

Ans True

2. Biotechnology is bringing about artificial genetic changes and hybridization in organisms for human welfare.

Ans True

3. Due to use of bio-fertilizers instead of chemical fertilizers, nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization abilities of the plants are improved.

Ans True

4. Subsequent amendments of 2009, 2011 and 2014 in Transplantation human organs act were done so that overall process would be little less expensive.

Ans False

5. The Pseudomonas bacteria are useful for cleaning the hydrocarbon and oil pollutants from soil and water.

Ans True

6. Stem cells are present in the umbilical cord by which the fetus is joined to the uterus of the mother.

Ans True

7. Stem cells are preserved in liquid hydrogen at -135oC to 190oC.

Ans False

8. “The disease related with the synthesis of insulin is heart disease.”                                                                                    Ans:  False – “The disease related with the synthesis of insulin is diabetes.”

9. Life of many people is at stake because of organ and body donation

Ans False

Q.6. Name the following :

  1. Name two medicinal plants –

Ans i. Cinchona,  ii] Adulsa

2. Name the Various research institutes and laboratories are engaged in development of new varieties of various crops?

Ans i. Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI),

 ii] New Delhi, National Citrus Research Institute, Nagpur and allied branches,

iii] Indian Institute of Sciences,

iv] National Pomegranate Research Institute, Solapur.

3.Commercial method of bee-keeping for harvesting honey.

Ans Apiculture

4. Name two research institutes specially dedicated for research on cells in India.

Ans i. National Center for Cell Science at Pune,

ii. ‘Instem’ at Bengaluru

5. An India born American citizen who is credited for use of biotechnology for Cleaning of Oil Spillage in Oceans-

Ans Dr. Anand Mohan Chakravarti

6. Name two bacterias used as bio-fertilizers

Ans i. Rhizobium,

Azotobacter

7. Name the person in the following picture and their contribution.

Ans Dr. Norman Borlog, contribution in green revolution.

8. Name any two insecticides- DDT, Malathion)

Ans i. DDT,

Malathion

9. The study of the structure, types and organelles of the cell.

Ans Cytology

10. Bacterium highly resistant to radiation.

Ans Deinococcus radiodurans

11. A group of small sized protein molecule used in treatment of viral diseases.

Ans Interferon

12. Name the person in the following picture and their contribution.

Ans Dr. M. S. Swaminathan (India), contribution in green revolution.

13. Father of white revolution in India –

Ans Dr. Verghese Kurien

14. Method of soil-less farming.

Ans Hydroponics

15. Mention any one benefit of biotechnology to the agriculture

Ans Pesticide expenses have been minimized due to GM crops like BT cotton.

16. Name one disease that can be treated with gene therapy-

Ans Phenylketonuria (PKT)

Q.7. Give scientific reasons : 

1. Awareness about organ donation after death is increasing.

Ans Due to accidents or illness, some of the vital organs may suffer and they become damaged. Sometimes their ability to function at the fullest done, it will be very helpful for that needy patient. It can save his life. As it is after death, the body is disposed off, but if organs in good conditions are retrieved, for transplantation, it will

be a great service. Many government and social organizations are spreading such awareness about body donation. Therefore, gradually the organ transplantation is increasing.

2. Stem cells are primary type of undifferentiated cells with self-multiplying ability and they are parent cells of all types of human cells.

Ans i. Stem cells are an undifferentiated cell of a multicellular organism which is capable of giving rise to indefinitely more cells of the same type, and from which certain other kinds of cell arise by differentiation.

New organism is formed from the zygote that is formed by union of male and female gamete.

At the earliest stage of development, organism is in the form of a mass of cells. All the cells in that mass are almost alike. Those cells are called as stem cells.

During further development, these cells have the potential to form any type of cell, different types of tissues and perform different functions in the body.

This is the differentiation of stem cells present in the body.

3. Green revolution is one of the important stages in agriculture development.

Ans i. Various methods applied for harvesting maximum yield from minimum land, to increase quality and quantity of food to deal with ever increasing population. Is called green revolution.

Improvised dwarf varieties of wheat and rice, proper use of fertilizers and pesticides and water

management has led to the increased production of food grains and thereby large population had been saved from hunger.

This led to Green revolution. Dr. Norman Borlaug (USA) and Dr. M. S. Swaminathan (India) have valuable contribution in green revolution.

4. Why some of the organism in human body are most valuable ?

Ans Various organs in the human body become less efficient or completely functionless due to aging, accidents etc. But if a person gets the necessary organs on him life can be saved. Organ like kidney and skim can be easily donated and transplanted even when we are alive. But organs like lives, heart and eyes can be donated only after death and hence such organs are most valuable.

5. Nowadays, safer vaccines are being produced.

Ans Before the advent of biotechnology, the vaccines were made from inactive or dead pathogens of that disease. But now the vaccine is made artificially using biotechnological processes. Such vaccines used to produce some disease symptoms in some cases. The antigen of the disease is researched upon and its genetic code is found out. A similar antigen is made in the laboratories which is used as remain active for longer duration. Therefore, the vaccines are now safer.

Q.8. Laws / Define / Principles : 

  1. Define vaccination.

Ans Vaccine is the antigen containing malarial given to acquire. Either permanent or temporary immunity against a stearic pathogen; or disease. Traditionally vaccines were prepared from completely or partially killed pathogens. Nowadays, Portents which act as antigen are injected in pure form, which keep the persons away from diseases’ by keeping the immune system active and is the batest way of vaccination.

Q.9. Write properties/characteristics/uses/advantage/effects. 

  1. What are the requirements for organ transplantation ?

Ans > Various criteria’s have to be met by donor before transplantation which are as followed :

Compatibility of Blood groups of donor and recipient.

Rh factor compatibility.

Age is also important criteria.

Diseases

Disorders

2. Disadvantages of Biotechnology.                                        Ans:  Disadvantages:

  1. Attempts to develop ‘super-human’ through genetic manipulation.
  2. No study about long-term effects of GM crops on environment and living organisms.
  3. Financial loot of poor countries and farmers due to monopoly through patenting of GM crops.
  4. Genetically modified pest-resistant crops may prove harmful to beneficial insects.

Advantages of Biotechnology

Ans Advantages:

High yield in less time and less expenses.

We can avoid the use of pesticides and thereby pollution.

Quality of the food and food-grains has been improved.

Uses of fertilizers.

Ans 1.They are either applied to the soil, directly on the plant (foliage) or added to aqueous solutions, in order to maintain soil fertility, improve crop development, yield and/or crop quality.

The purpose of fertilizers is to supplement the natural supply of soil nutrient, build up soil fertility in order to

2.satisfy the demand of crops with a high yield potential and to compensate for the nutrients taken by harvested products or lost by unavoidable leakages to the environment, in order to maintain good soil

conditions for cropping.

Explain the importance of fruit processing in human life?

Ans i. Fruits are perishable agro-produce.

It needs the processing in such a way that it can be used throughout the year.

Fruit processing includes various methods ranging from storage in cold storage to drying, salting, air tight packing, preparing murabba, evaporating, etc.

These processes enable us to use various products prepared from fruits on daily basis like jams, jellies, chocholates, juices etc.

Write two uses of biotechnology related to human health.

Ans i. In order to prevent various diseases, vaccines are produced artificially by biotechnology.

ii.Biotechnology is useful for production of hormones like insulin, somatotropin and blood clotting factors.

Uses of stem cells.

Ans i. Regenerative Therapy :

Cell Therapy: Stem cells are used to replace the dead cells in case of conditions like diabetes, myocardial infarction, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, etc.

To produce blood cells required in conditions like anemia, thalassaemia, leukemia, etc.

ii.Organ Transplantation :

In case of failure of organs like kidney and liver, those can be produced with the help of stem cells and transplanted.

Properties of stem cells :

Ans a.Pleuripotency : stem cells are primary type of undifferentiated cells with self-multiplying ability and they are parent cells of all types of human cells. This property of stem cells is called as pleuripotency.

It has been found that if these stem cells are collected well before the beginning of differentiation on 14th b.day i.e. during 5th – 7th day and cultured with certain biochemical stimulus in laboratory, as per the

stimulus, they can transform themselves into desired type of cells, thereby tissues and finally into organs.

Write Short Notes 8

Write short note on biosensors.

Ans > A biosensor is an analytical device, used for the detection of an analyte, that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector. Applications of biosensors are in following fields

Glucose monitoring

Food analysis

DNA biosensors

Microbial biosensors

Ozone biosensors

Metastatic cancer cells biosensors (ref: en.wikipedia.org)

Write short note on organ transplantation.

Ans i. Various organs in the human body either become less efficient or completely functionless due to various

reasons like aging, accidents, infections, disorders, etc.

If a person gets the necessary organ under certain conditions, this is known as organ transplantation and thus the life can be saved.

iii.A living person can donate one kidney(if both his kidneys are functional), skin from certain parts of body, bone marrow whereas organs like liver, heart, eyes can be donated after death only

Write short note on ‘Dolly’.

Ans i. A sheep ‘Dolly’ was born in Scotland by cloning technique on 5th July 1996.

Nucleus from the udder cell of sheep of ‘Finn Dorset’ variety had been introduced into enucleated ovum of Scottish sheep.

Then, the ovum was allowed to develop in the uterus of Scottish sheep and thereby the ‘Dolly’ had been born.

It was showing the characters as per the chromosomes in nucleus and any character of Scottish sheep was not visible.

Write short note on Animal Husbandry.

Ans i. It is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raiset for meat, fibre, milk, eggs or other produces.

It helps to improve both, the quantity and quality of animal products. Two main methods as artificial insemination and embryo transfer are used in animal husbandry.

Ex. Milk, meat, wool, etc. Similarly, animals with more strength have been developed for hard work. In India, animal husbandry is praised for milk and meat production and in farming operations.

Complete the given flow chart / table 6

1

Ans

2

Ans

.

3

Ans

Distinguish between 4

Pisciculture and Aquaculture

Ans

Pisciculture

Aquaculture

i.

Pisciculture is the process of growing fish In tanks or enclosures and selling it or using its products for domestic or commercial use.

 

Aquaculture is a process of growing any aquatic animals And aquatic plants like algae and other organism. and selling them for commercial purposes.

 
 

ii.

Fish can be grown both in salt water or fresh water.

It involves breeding feeding, harvesting and many other processes. The most popular one’s grown under controlled environments are shrimps, crab fish, lobster and few others. Aqua culture com also be franchised both in fresh water or salt water.

 
 

Apiculture and Vermiculture

Ans

Apiculture

Vermiculture

i.

Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives, by humans.

Vermiculture is the process of using worms to decompose organic food waste, turning the waste into a nutrient-rich material capable of supplying necessary nutrients to help sustain plant growth.

 

ii.

A beekeeper (or apiarist) keeps bees in order to collect their honey and other products that the hive produces (including beeswax, flower pollen, bee pollen, and royal jelly, to pollinate crops, or to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers.

This provides tremendous source of nutrients for plants that improves the texture and fertility of soil; and freeboard valuable nutrients into the soil. like N,P,K.

 

Give examples 14

The below diagram shows the potential of stem cells to form different cell types. Give the types of Cells along with example.

Ans Types of stem cells :

1..Embryonic stem cells. (example : Cells of inner cell mass of blastocyst)

2. Adult stem cells (example : red bone marrow, adipose connective tissue and blood. Stem cells can be obtained from cord blood immediate after birth)

Genetically modified crops

Ans Bt cotton, Bt brinjal, Golden rice

Food items produced with the help of microorganisms.

Ans Bread, cheese, wine beer, yoghurt, vinegar

Sources of stem cells

Ans Umbilical cord, blastocyst, red bone marrow, adipose connective tissue, blood.

Biofertilizers used in agriculture.

Ans Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Nostoc, Anabaena, Azolla

Plants used for phyto – remediation.

Ans Pteris vittata, alfalfa, clover, rye, sunflower.

Products obtained by biotechnology for treatment of diseases.

Ans Insulin, somatotropin, blood clotting factors, interferons

Suggest remedies / measures 3

Which Precautions will you take during & spraying of pesticides ?

Ans 1. Person, spraying insecticides must wear protective master and clothing to present inhalation and direct contact with peptides.

Pesticides are in feat polonies. There polonies enter the food web through water and food and bio-

magnification occurs.

Hence minimum and hinted use of pesticides is a must since there are extremely dangerous and damage our ecosystem.

Complete the table/ web/ flow chart 3

1

Ans Any 6

Crop Biotechnology (GM crops, hybrid seeds, biofertilizers)

Environmental Biotechnology (Pollution control, sewage treatment, etc.)

Animal husbandry

Human health (vaccines, gene therapy, cloning, etc.

Forensic science (DNA fingerprinting, etc)

Enhanced food production (Green revolution, White revolution, Blue revolution, etc.)

Good biotechnology (Yoghurt, wine, bread, beer, cheese, etc.)

Industrial products / White biotechnology

Explain with the help of examples 9

What are bio- pesticides ? Give types with examples ?

Ans Biopesticides, a contraction of ‘biological pesticides’, includes several types of pest management intervention: through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships. The term has been associated with biological control – and by implication – the manipulation of living organisms.

Biopesticides can be classified into these classes :

Microbial pesticides: which consist of bacteria, entomopathogenic fungi or viruses. (and sometimes includes the metabolites that bacteria or fungi produce)

Bio-derived chemicals: includes pyrethrum, rotenone, neem oil, and various essential oils.

Plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs): have genetic material from other species incorporated into their genetic material ex GM crops.

RNAi pesticides: Some of which are topical and some of which are absorbed by the crop.

What are genetically modified crops ? Give examples ?

Ans i. Crops developed with desired characters by integrating foreign gene with their genome are called as genetically modified crops.

ii. High yielding varieties with resistance to diseases, alkalinity, weeds other stresses like cold and drought. iii.Examples BT Cotton, BT Brinjal, Golden Rice, Herbicide tolerant plants etc

Explain in brief – D.N.A. Fingerprinting. Give two examples where this technique is used.

Ans DNA sequence of each person is unique as that of the fingerprints. Due to this, identity of any person can be established with the help of its available DNA. This is called as DNA fingerprinting.

The use of this technology is as follows :

Identity of the criminal can be established with the help of any part of its body found at the site of crime.

Identity of father of any child can be established.

Complete the sentences in paragraph 9

Complete the paragraph.

(Degenerated, red bone marrow, adispose connective tissue, blastocyst, umbilical cord, Differentiation in bones)

…………… of stem cells form can form various tissues in the body. Stem cells are present in the by

which the foetus is joined to the uterus of the mother. Stem cells are also present in the stage of

embryonic development. Stem cells are present …………… and …………… of adult human beings. It has become possible to produce different types of tissues and the part of any organ with the help of

these stem cells.

Ans Differentiation of stem cells form can form various tissues in the body. Stem cells are present in

the umbilical cord by which the foetus is joined to the uterus of the mother. Stem cells are also present in the blastocyst stage of embryonic development. Stem cells are present in red bone

marrow and adispose connective tissue of adult human beings. It has become possible to produce different types of tissues and the degenerated part of any organ with the help of these stem cells.

Complete the paragraph:

(voluntarily donating, traditional, preserving, active, Awareness, organ and body, specific conditions, functional)

Human bodies are disposed off after death as per customs. Due to progress in science, it has been

realized that many organs remain …………… for certain period even after death, if death occurs under

…………… This advancement has lead to success of …………… donation after death. …………… about this concept is increasing in our country and people are their bodies.

Ans Human bodies are disposed off after death as per traditional customs. Due to progress in science, it has been realized that many organs remain functional for certain period even after death, if death occurs under specific conditions. This advancement has lead to success of organ and body donation after death. Awareness about this concept is increasing in our country and people are voluntarily donating their bodies.

Complete the paragraph:

(bacteria, biotechnology, virus, organic, immunity, edible, transgenic, E. coli)

Work on production of vaccines is in progress and presently, potatoes are being produced with the

help of …………… . These potatoes are called as …………… potatoes. These potatoes will act against ……………

like Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli. Consumption of these raw potatoes generates the against

cholera and the disease caused due to …………… .

Ans Work on production of edible vaccines is in progress and presently, potatoes are being produced with the help of biotechnology. These potatoes are called as transgenic potatoes. These potatoes will act against bacteria like Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli. Consumption of these raw potatoes generates the immunity against cholera and the disease caused due to E. coli.

Write answers based on given diagram/ figure 3

1

Which process is shown in the above figure?

Describe in brief the steps- I, II, III & IV.

Ans A.Production of edible vaccines is shown in the figure.

B.Steps:

Isolation of desired gene from human pathogen and transfer of it to plant virus.

Infection of the pieces of leaves of potato by the transgenic virus.

Development of new potato plant from the infected leaves of potato which will contain the gene from human pathogen.

Consumption of such raw potato gives immunity against the pathogen.

Answer the following 21

Explain: Soil-less farming is the future of agriculture.

Ans

Fertile soil is disappearing fast because of climate change and intensive farming, just as the world needs to

feed more people. Hydroponics, or soil-less farming, may change the face of agriculture by providing a more sustainable and productive alternative to traditional cultivation.

Soilless/dirt free farming: Traditional agriculture is cultivation of crops/plants in soil. The plants, in fact, do not need soil to grow but for its nutrients.

If the plants are grown in nutrient solutions or any other substrate (other than soil) containing essential

nutrients, the practice is known as soilless gardening/ dirt free farming.

In a traditional soil-based garden, a plant wastes most of its energy developing a huge root system for it has to search far and wide in the soil for its food and water.

In soilless gardening, these are directly available to the plant roots. The plant gets everything it needs, in all

the right proportions, at just the right time and utilizing it most efficiently.

Here the plant shows its full genetic potential. They just bypass the soil and the plant’s requirements are

met by nutrient rich water. It is known as Hydroponic cultivation.

Explain: Production of replica of any cell or organ or entire organism is called cloning.

Ans i. Reproductive cloning :

A clone can be produced by fusion of a nucleus of somatic cell with the enucleated ovum of anybody. Thus, there is no need of sperm to produce the new organism.

ii.Therapeutic cloning :

Stem cells can be derived from the cell formed in laboratory by the union of somatic cell nucleus with the enucleated egg cell. Various diseases can be treated with the help of these stem cells.

Genes can also be cloned and millions of copies of same gene can be produced. Those can be used for gene therapy and other purposes.

Controlling the inheritance of hereditary diseases, continuation of generations, enhancing the specific tendency may become possible due to cloning technique.

Chemical fertilizers and pesticides are harmful if used on large scale to increase yield of crops and to protect them from various pests.

Ans i. These chemicals are poisonous, and have reached the human body through food and water.

Their adverse harmful effects on human and environment have become apparent.

But on the other hand farmers have to deal with various problems like soil fertility and pest infestation have become serious.

So as to overcome these problems, farmers are opting for organic farming. It includes complete ban on chemical fertilizers and pesticides and use of local, sturdy varieties.

In organic farming biofertilizers, biopesticides, bioremediation methods are used to protect the plants, provide them nutrition and increase the yield.

The genetically modified crops can also be used which are high yielding varieties with resistance to vi.

diseases, alkalinity, weeds other stresses like cold and drought.

Explain the importance of medicinal plants in India.

Ans i. The term of medicinal plants include a various types of plants used in herbalism and some of these plants have a medicinal activities.

These medicinal plants are considered as rich resources of ingredients which can be used in drug development and synthesis.

India has been gifted with a great biodiversity. We have a great tradition of ayurveda that cures the diseases with the help of natural sources.

During earlier days, medicinal plants were collected from the forest. These days due to depletion in forest area, medicinal plants are becoming rare.

Hence, medicinal plants are being cultivated.

What do we call the degenerated or partially developed useless organs in living organisms?

Enlist such organs in human body?

How the same organs are useful in other animals?

Ans i. Degenerated or partially developed useless organs are called vestigial organs.

Wisdom tooth, Appendix, Body hairs, Coccyx, are some vestigial organs in human body.

Coccyx supports the tail in other animals. Body hairs protect form cold.

Biofertilizer is a substance which contains living microorganism. Discuss ?

Ans

Biofertilizer is a substance which contains living microorganism which, when applied to seed, plant

surfaces, or soil, colonizes the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. Biofertilizers are not fertilizers.

Bio-fertilizers add nutrients through the natural processes of : a.nitrogen fixation

b.solubilizing phosphorus

c.stimulating plant growth through the synthesis of growth-promoting substances.

Examples : Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirilium, blue green algae(BGA), Anabena, Azolla.

Bioremediation means either absorption or destruction of toxic chemicals and harmful pollutants with the help of plants and microorganisms. Explain with the help of examples.

Ans i. If plants are used for this purpose, it called as ‘phyto-remediation. Examples are :

The Pseudomonas bacteria are useful for cleaning the hydrocarbon and oil pollutants from soil and water.

The fern Pteris vitata can absorb the arsenic from the soil.

Genetically modified variety of Indian mustard can absorb selenium from soil.

Sunflower can absorb uranium and arsenic

The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is highly radiation resistant organism. It has been genetically modified and used to absorb the radiations from radioactive debris.

Grasses like alfalfa, clover and rye are used in phyto-remediation.

Answer the following in detail 20

Answer the following question:

What are stem cells?

How are stem cells preserved?

Name types of stem cell.

Where can we find stem cell in our body?

Ans 1. Cells in the body of multicellular animals, which give rise to other various types of cells are stem cells.

Stem cells are preserved in liquid nitrogen at -1350C to -1900C.

Embryonic stem cells and Adult stem cells.

Stem cells are present in the umbilical cord by which the fetus is joined to the uterus of the mother. Stem cells are also present in the blastocyst stage of embryonic development. Stem cells are present in the red bone marrow and adipose connective tissue of adult human beings.

Explain Biotechnology : Professional uses.

Ans i. Crop Biotechnology : Biotechnology is used in agricultural field to improve yield and variety.

ii. Hybrid Seeds : Genes of two different crops are recombined to form hybrids of various crops. This is especially useful for fruits.

Genetically Modified Crops : Crops developed with desired characters by integrating foreign gene with

iii.

iv.

their genome are called as genetically modified crops. High yielding varieties with resistance to diseases, alkalinity, weeds other stresses like cold and drought. Examples BT Cotton, BT Brinjal, Golden Rice, Herbicide tolerant plants

Biofertilizers : Due to use of biofertilizers instead of chemical fertilizers, nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization abilities of the plants are improved. Mainly the bacteria like Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Nostoc, Anabaena and plants like Azolla are used as biofertilizers.

Tissue culture : Genetic improvement of the plants has become possible due to tissue culture and besides, those characters inherited to next generation.

Animal Husbandry: Two main methods as artificial insemination and embryo transfer are used in animal

husbandry. It helps to improve both, the quantity and quality of animal products. Ex. Milk, meat, wool, etc. Similarly, animals with more strength have been developed for hard work.

Human Health : Diagnosis and treatment of the diseases are two important aspects of the human health management. Biotechnology helps to identify the role of gene, if any, in disease of a person.

Treatment : Biotechnology is useful for production of hormones like insulin, somatotropin and blood clotting factors.

Interferon : This is a group of small sized protein molecule used in treatment of viral diseases. These are

produced in blood. Nowadays, with the help of biotechnology, transgenic E. coli are used for production of interferon.

Gene therapy : Gene therapy to treat genetic disorders in somatic cells has become possible due to

biotechnology. Ex. Phenylketonuria (PKT) arises due to genetic changes in hepatocytes (liver cells). It has

become possible to treat it with gene therapy. This method is called as somatic cell gene therapy. All the

cells except sperms and ova in the body are called as somatic cells.

Cloning : Production of replica of any cell or organ or entire organism is called cloning.

Industrial Products / White Biotechnology : Various industrial chemicals can be produced through less

expensive processes. Example: Alcohol production from sugar molasses with the help of transgenic yeast.

Environment and Biotechnology : It has become possible to solve environment related various problems with the help of biotechnology.

Food Biotechnology : Food items like bread, cheese, wine, beer, yoghurt, vinegar are produced with the

help of microorganisms. These food items are probably the oldest ones produced with the help of biotechnology.

DNA fingerprinting : It is mainly useful in forensic sciences to Identity criminal with the help of any part of

its body found at the site of crime; identity father of any child can be established. This research is performed in Center for DNA fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad.

The below diagram shows the potential of stem cells to form different cell types. The primary cells used here are found where in the body. Give the types and properties of these cells.

Ans i. Stem cells are present in :

The umbilical cord by which the fetus is joined to the uterus of the mother.

The blastocyst stage of embryonic development.

In red bone marrow and adipose connective tissue of adult human beings.

Types of stem cells :

Depending upon source of stem cells, they are of two types as mentioned below.

Embryonic stem cells. (example : Cells of inner cell mass of blastocyst)

Adult stem cells (example : red bone marrow, adipose connective tissue and blood. Stem cells can be obtained from cord blood immediate after birth)

Properties of stem cells :

Pleuripotency : stem cells are primary type of undifferentiated cells with self-multiplying ability and they are parent cells of all types of human cells. This property of stem cells is called as pleuripotency.

It has been found that if these stem cells are collected well before the beginning of differentiation on 14th

day i.e. during 5th – 7th day and cultured with certain biochemical stimulus in laboratory, as per the stimulus, they can transform themselves into desired type of cells, thereby tissues and finally into organs.

There are variable uses of biotechnology in the health sector.

Ans Diagnosis and treatment of the diseases are two important aspects of the human health management.

Biotechnology helps to identify the role of gene, if any, in disease of a person.

Diagnosis of diabetes and heart diseases has become possible even before the onset of symptoms, with

i.

ii.

the help of biotechnology. Diagnosis of the diseases like AIDS, dengue can be done within few minutes. Hence, treatment can be done at the earliest.

Treatment : The hormone insulin is used in treatment of diabetes. Earlier, insulin was being collected from the pancreas of horses. Nowadays, due to biotechnology, insulin can be prepared with the help of bacteria. For this purpose, human insulin gene has been inserted into the genome of bacteria. Various vaccines and antibiotics are also produced in the same way.

Vaccines and Vaccination: Vaccine is the ‘antigen’ containing material given to acquire either permanent or temporary immunity against a specific pathogen or disease. Traditionally, vaccines were prepared with the help of pathogens. Completely or partially killed pathogens were used as vaccines. However, due to this,

there were chances of contracting the disease in case of some persons. Hence, as an alternative, scientists tried to artificially produce vaccines with the help of biotechnology. For this purpose, scientists produced the antigen in laboratory with the help of gene isolated from the pathogen and used it as vaccine. Thus, safer vaccines are being produced.

Treatment: Biotechnology is useful for production of hormones like insulin, somatotropin and blood clotting factors.

Interferon: This is a group of small sized protein molecule used in treatment of viral diseases. These are

produced in blood. Nowadays, with the help of biotechnology, transgenic E. coli are used for production of interferon.

Gene therapy: Gene therapy to treat genetic disorders in somatic cells has become possible due to

biotechnology. Ex. Phenylketonuria (PKT) arises due to genetic changes in hepatocytes (liver cells). It has become possible to treat it with gene therapy. This method is called as somatic cell gene therapy. All the

cells except sperms and ova in the body are called as somatic cells.

Cloning: Production of replica of any cell or organ or entire organism is called cloning. It is again of two types reproductive cloning and theraupetic cloning.

 

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