Maharashtra board 10th science part 2 topic 7.Introduction to microbiology solution.

Question And Answer :

Multiple Choice Questions 12

In which of the following industries, microbial enzymes are not used?

Glass industry b. Cheese industry c. Tanning industry d. Paper industry.

Ans Option a.

Chemical Formula of vinegar –

CH3COOH b. CH3 (CO)2

Ans Option a.

c. CH3 (CH2)2 CH2

d. CH3CHO

Cheese formed after ripening for 12-18 months is known as

Cream cheese b. Semi-hard cheese

c. Parmesan cheese d. None of these

Ans Option c.

a by – product of fermentation is a biopesticide.

Spinosad b. Lactose c. Butyric Acid d. Ethanol

Ans Option a.

Sewage genes affected our house or apartment should be disposed off is expect –

Lau fills b. Ores hands c. Rivers d. Dumping area

Ans Option d.

Citric acid used in production of beverages, toffees, chocolates is obtained by fermentation of by

aspergillus niger.

Grapes b. Sugar molasses c. Apple d. Coffee nuts

Ans Option b.

…………… form the colonies of useful microbes in alimentary canal and control other microbes and their metabolic activities, improve resistance.

Carbohydrate b. Vitamins c. Probiotics d. Proteins

Ans Option c.

Cheese used in western kind of food is ……………

Cheddar b. Cottage c. Mozzarella d. Yoghurt

Ans Option b.

Food materials like cold drinks, ice-creams, cakes, juices are available in various causes and flaneuse are derived from.

Plants b. Animals c. Flowers d. Microbes

Ans Option d.

is used as a low calories artificial sweetner.

Lactose b. Sucrose c. Xylitol d. Fructose

Ans Option c.

Subtance prepared by using dry yeast on commercial basis is

Bread b. Yoghurt c. Vinegar d. Cheese

Ans Option a.

Fermentation process while conversion of milk into yoghurt ?

Saccharomyces cerevisiae b. Bifidobacterium bifidum

c. Acidophilus d. Lactobacillus

Ans Option d.

Find the odd one out 5

Lactobacillus lactic, Lactobacillus cremoris, Streptococcus thermophiles, Streptococcus bovis

Ans Streptococcus bovis

Transferases, Lyases, Ligases, Rennet

Ans Rennet

Itaconic acid, Citric acid, Glutamic acid, Sulphuric acid.

Ans Sulphuric acid

Yoghurt, Cream, Toffee, Cheese

Ans Toffee

Bovis, Vibrio, Ideonella, Sakaiensis

Ans Bovis

Find co-related terms 5

Vanillin : Essence : : Xylitol : ……………

Ans Vanillin : Essence : : Xylitol : Artificial sweetener

Lactobacillus delbrueckii : Lactic acid : : Aspergillus itaconius : ……………

Ans Lactobacillus delbrueckii : Lactic acid : : Aspergillus itaconius : Itaconic acid

Caffea arabica : Lactobacillus brevis :: Apple : …………… .

Ans Caffea arabica : Lactobacillus brevis :: Apple : Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Natamyscin : Microbial restrictor : : Xanthenes : ……………

Ans Natamyscin : Microbial restrictor : : Xanthenes : Edible colours

Yoghurt : Lactobacilli : : Bread : ……………

Ans Yoghurt : Lactobacilli : : Bread : Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Match the pair 6

1

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Xylitol

a. Colour

ii. Citric acid

b. Artificial sweetner

 

c. To impact acidity

Ans

i. Xylitol

Artificial sweetner

ii. Citric acid

To impact acidity

2

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Saccharomyces cerevisiae

a, Clean fuel

ii. Ethanol

b. Cider

 

c. Coffee

Ans

i. Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Cider

Clean fuel

ii. Ethanol

3

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Grapes

a. Production of minrals like Calcium and iron

ii. Xanthene

b. Wine

 

c. Xanthomonas

Ans

i. Grapes

Wine

ii. Xanthene

Xanthomonas

4

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Gluconic acid

a. Artificial sweetener

ii. Xylitol

b. Production of minrals like Calcium and iron

 

c. Wine

Ans

i. Gluconic acid

Production of minrals like Calcium and iron

ii. Xylitol

Artificial sweetener.

5

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Ethanol

a. Production of minrals like Calcium and iron

ii. Grapes

b. Moke-less fuel

 

c. Wine

Ans

i. Ethanol

Smoke-less fuel

ii. Grapes

Wine

6

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Lycopenes

a, Protein binding

ii. Nycin

b. Colour

 

c. Microbial restrictor

Ans

i. Lycopenes

Colour

ii. Nycin

Microbial restrictor

State True or False 9

Milk processed using lactobacilli.

Ans Milk processed using lactobacilli. – True

Rifamycin is not effective against tuberculosis

Ans Rifamycin is not effective against tuberculosis – False

Whey is in-corporated into. Cheese to give it texture

Ans Whey is in-corporated into. Cheese to give it texture – False

Nocardia species of fungi recompenses rubber

Ans Nocardia species of fungi recompenses rubber – True

Probiotics are harmful to humans

Ans Probiotics are harmful to humans – False

Hydrogen gas is considered as fuel in future

Ans Hydrogen gas is considered as fuel in future – True

Biofuel is renewable sources of energy

Ans Biofuel is renewable sources of energy – True

Land filling sites are lands in which are garbage from cities is dumped.

Ans Hand filling sites are lands in which are garbage from cities is dumped – True

Monosodium glutamate is Chemical name for ajinomoto

Ans Monosodium glutamate is Chemical name for ajinomoto – True

Name the following 12

Bacterial species which can decompose PET or plastic bottles.

Ans Ideonella sakaiensis

Microbes used for fermentation of grape juice to produce wine.

Ans Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Types of cheese, based on production.

Ans Cottage cheese Cream cheese

Mozzarella cheese Cheddar cheese

Organic acid used in Production of Paper, Textile, Plastic industry

Ans Itaconic acid

Organic acid used in Production of drinks, coffees, chocolate

Ans Citric acid

Fungus used to ferment wheat flour, rice, soybean while making soy sauce.

Ans Aspergillus oryzae.

Contents of Yeast

Ans Carbohydrates, Fasts, Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals, Minerals.

Name various probiotic products

Ans Yoghurt, Kefir, Miso soup, Pickles, Oils, Corn syrup, Dark chocolates, Microalgas, Sauerkraut

Fermented milk products.

Ans Yoghurt, Buttermilk, Cheese, Cream

Organic acids used in commercial products

Ans L – Glutamic acid, Citric acid, Gluonic acid, Lactic acid, Ltaconic acid

Various bacteria used in beverage production

Ans Lactobacillus brevis, Candida, Hausenula, Pichia, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cerevisiae

Gas released during fermentation by yeast which makes bread spongy.

Ans Carbon dioxide

Give scientific reasons 12

Yeast is used in bread production.

Ans i. Compressed yeast is used in commercial bakery industry.

It is available in any granular form for domestic use.

Yeast produced for commercial use contains various useful contents like carbohydrates, fats, proteins, various vitamins, and minerals.

Due to this bread, and other products produced with the help of yeast become nutrifine.

Use of mutant strains has been increased in industrial microbiology.

Ans i. Mutant strains developed have helped to avoid unnecessary steps and materials thus saving time and labour.

They have helped in the expansion of industries like fermentation and resultant products, production of raw materials for chemicals, enzymes, nutrients and medicines.

Microbes are extensively used for garbage management and pollution control thus helpful in environmental management.

Microbial enzymes are used instead of chemical catalysts in chemical industry.

Ans i. Because enzymes are active at low temperature. pH and pressure; due to which energy is saved and erosion-proof instruments are also not necessary.

Enzymes carry out specific processes; hence unnecessary byproducts are not formed due to which expenses on purification are minimised.

Mixture of bacterial strains is used in Ethanol to produce vinegar.

Ans i. Because when bacterial strains are mixed with ethanol for its microbial degradation. Acetic acid and other by-products are obtained through it.

Acetic acid is separated from mixture by rarefaction. Acetic acid is bleached with the help of potassium ferrocynide. Then, it is pasteurized. Finally, very small quantity of SO2 gas is mixed to produce vinegar.

Enzymes obtained from microbial process are mixed with detergent.

Ans i. Because, process of dirt / mark removal occurs at low temperature for due mixing of enzymes with detergents.

Hence enzymes are eco-friendly.

Bacteria can control the soil pollution occurring due to acid rain.

Ans i. Nitrogen and Sulphur dioxide generated due to burning of fuels like coal, diesel, petrol, etc. lead to problems like acid-rain.

Sulphuric acid is present in the acid rain and materials coming out of mines. iii.Erosion of metals present in statues, bridges and buildings occurs due to it.

Sulphuric acid is source of energy for some species of bacteria like Acidophillium spp. and Acidobacillus ferroxidens.

Hence, these bacteria can control the soil pollution occurring due to acid rain.

Laws / Define / Principles 10

Define Applied Microbiology

Ans Branch of biology in which study of the enzymes related to some prokaryotes and eukaryotic microbes, proteins, applied genetics, molecular biology, etc. is performed; is called as applied microbiology.

Define Antibiotics

Ans Many diseases of human and other animals have been controlled due to antibiotics obtained from different types of bacteria and fungi. Antibiotics like penicillin, cephalosporins, monobactam, bacitracin, erythromycin, gentamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, tetracyclins, vancomycin, etc. are used against various strains of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Rifamycin is effective against tuberculosis.

Define Industrial Microbiology

Ans Science is related to commercial use of microbes in which various economic, social and environment related processes and products are included. Various microbial processes useful for this purpose are carried out.

Define Bioinsecticides

Ans Bacterial and fungal toxins which can destroy pests and pathogens can be directly integrated into plants with the help of biotechnology are called Bioinsecticides.

ex. Spinosad is a byproduct of fermentation is a biopesticide.

Define Hydrocarbonablastic Bacteria (HCB)

Ans Bacteria like Pseudomonas spp. and Alcanovorax borkumensis have the ability to destroy the pyridines and other chemicals. Hence, these bacteria are used to clear the oil spills. These are called as hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria.

Write Short Notes 14

Write a note on cheese production in detail.

Ans i. Cheese is produced on large scale from the abundantly available cow milk.

First, chemical and microbiological tests of milk are performed.

Some colours and microbes like Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus cremoris, and Streptococcus thermophilus are mixed with milk.

It imparts sourness to the milk. After this, to impart the dense texture, whey (water in yoghurt) needs to be removed.

An enzyme, rennet obtained from alimentary canal of cattle was being traditionally used earlier.

However, an enzyme protease obtained from fungi is used at present to produce vegetarian cheese.

The whey is separated from yoghurt (which has some other uses).

Then, process of production of cheese is started through steps like cutting the solid yoghurt into pieces, washing, rubbing, salting, and mixing of essential microbes, pigments and flavours.

Then, cheese is pressed and cut in to pieces and stored for ripening.

Write short note on microbes and fuels.

Ans i. Gaseous fuel – methane can be obtained by microbial anaerobic decomposition of urban agricultural and industrial waste.

Ethanol, an alcohol is a clean (smokeless) fuel obtained during fermentation of molasses by the yeast- Saccharomyces.

Hydrogen gas is considered to be the fuel of future. Hydrogen gas is released during bio-photolysis of water in which bacteria perform the photoreduction.

Write short note on Biofuels.

Ans i. Biofuel is important among the renewable sources of good energy

These fuels are available in solid, liquid, gaseous forms.

These fuels are available reality in plenty; and are reliable fuels for future.

Write short note on Bio – insecticides.

Ans i. Bacterial and fungal toxins which can destroy pests and pathogens can be directly integrated into plants with the help of biotechnology.

Being toxic to insects, they do not consume the plants.

Similar to bacteria, some species of fungi and viruses are useful as pesticides.

Spinosad, a byproduct of fermentation is a biopesticide.

Write short note on Modern Landfill site with diagram.

Ans

Degradable waste being accumulated in urban areas is used for this

Large pits are dug in open spaces far away from the residential area and those pits are lined with plastic sheets as a precaution against pollution of soil due to leaching of toxic and harmful materials.

Compressed waste is dumped in the pit. It is covered with layers of soil, saw dust, leafy waste and specific biochemicals. Bioreactors are mixed at some places.

Microbes present in soil and other top layers decompose the waste. Completely filled pit is sealed with soil slurry. Best quality compost is formed after few days.

Write short note on Importance of probiotics.

Ans

These products form the colonies of useful microbes in alimentary canal and control other microbes and

their metabolic activities, improve resistance and lower the ill-effects of harmful substances formed during metabolic activities.

Useful microbes become inactive due to antibiotics; probiotics make them active again. iii.Nowaday, probiotics are used for treatment of diarrhea and treatment of poultry also.

Write short note on Yoghurt products.

Ans i. Yoghurt is a milk product produced with the help of lactobacilli.

For maintaining the protein content, condensed milk powder is mixed with milk to be fermented

Milk is boiled and once it cools to warm temperature, bacterial strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii are added to it in 1:1 proportion.

Lactic acid is formed due to Streptococcus that makes the proteins to gel out that gives dense consistency

to the yoghurt. Acetaldehyde like compounds are formed due to lactobacilli hat gives characteristic taste to the yoghurt.

Write properties/characteristics/uses/advantage/effects. 8

What is role of microbes in compost production ?

Ans i. In composting micro organism break down the organic matter and produce carbon dioxide, water and heat.

Bacteria and fundi help in composting.

Bacteria use variety of enzyme, to break down the complex organic matter like cellulose, lignin etc.

Fungi like moulds and yeast also break down tough debris which enables bacteria to complete the decomposition.

Importance of xanthum gum in daily life.

Ans i. It imparts thickness to ice-creams, puddings, Choclates, with shakes, Choclates drinks, instant soups.

ii. This gum is obtained by fermentation of starch and molasses with the help of Xanthomonas species. iii.It is variously useful due to properties like solubility in hot and cold water, high density, etc.

iv.It is used for production of pigments, fertilizers, weedicides, textile pigments, tooth pastes, high quality paper, etc.

Benefits of mixing ethanol with petrol and diesel.

Ans i. Petrol and diesel are fossil fuels which are non renewable and are also on the verge of exhaustion.

ii. On the contrary we can produce as much as ethanol as we want since we have large amount of biomass. iii.This will reduce the consumption of fossil fuels

iv.Ethanol is a clean fuel and it reduces carbon monoxide emissions.

Importance of biopesticides in or ganic farming.

Ans i. Bacterial and fungal toxins which can destroy pests and pathogens can be directly integrated into plants with the help of biotechnology.

Being toxic to insects, they do not consume the plants.

Some species of fungi and viruses, spinosad, a byproduct of fermentation is a biopesticide.

Biopesticides are important because they are ecofriendly and do not cause any harm to the soil, water or air.

Complete the given flow chart / table 6

Copmplete the table of Milk production.

Ans

Complete the diagram of sewage after processing.

Ans

Complete the table of Aspergillus niger.

Ans

Distinguish between 4

Yoghurt product and Probiotics.

Ans

 

Yoghurt product

Probiotics

i.

Yoghurt is a much product with the help of lactobacillus

Milk products with active bacteria.

 

Milk is boiled and once it cools to warm temperature, bacterial strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii are added to it

in 1:1 proportion.

microbes maintain the balance of

intestinal microorganisms i.e. increase the population of microbes helping

the digestion.

ii.

 

Applied Microbiology and Industrial Microbiology

Ans

 

Applied Microbiology

Industrial Microbiology

i.

Branch of biology in which study of the enzymes related to some prokaryotes and eukaryotic

This science is related to commercial use of microbes in which various economic social

 
 

microbes, proteins, applied genitive, molecular biology etc… is performed.

and environment related process and products are product.

ii.

This study is used for the society and various products like food, medicines

Various microbial processes useful for this purpose are carried out.

Give examples 28

Antibiotics

Ans Penicillin, cephalosporin, monobactam, erythromycin, gentamicin, neomycin, streptomyein, tetracyclines, vancomycin.

Give any four examples of milk products.

Ans i. Cream ii. Cheese iii. Yoghurt iv. butter

Give examples of Plants cultivated to obtain fuels.

Ans i. Ethanol is the commonest biofuel which can be obtained by fermentation of sugar derived from: Sugar cane, Wheat, Sugar beets, Corn, molasses etc.

ii.Bio-diesel can be obtained from Jatropha, Castor oil, Cottan seed oil etc.

Give examples for bacteria used in clean technology.

Ans i. Pseudomonas spp

Alcanovorax borkumensis

Actinomycetes

Nocardia

Geobacter

Acidobacillus ferroxidens

Streptomyces viii.Actinoplanes

Thiobacilli

sulphobacilli

Food items in which vinegar is used as preservative.

Ans Pickles, sauce, ketchup, chutneys.

Give examples of organic acids used in commercial product.

Ans i. L- glutanic acid

ii. Citric acid iii.Lactic acid

iv.Itaconic acid

Give examples of active bacteria in probiotics ?

Ans i. Lactobacillus

Acidophillium

Lactobacillus cases

Bifidobacterium bifidum

Give example of Fuels obtained from biomass.

Ans i. Methane biogas

ethoanol

bio – diesel

Hydrogen – by bio photolysis of water.

Gobar gas

Species of fungi which can decompose rubber from garbage

Ans Actinomycetes, Streptomyces, Nocardia, Actinoplanes

Probiotic products.

Ans Yoghurt, Kefir, sauerkraut (pickle of cabbage), dark chocolate, miso soup, pickles, oils, corn syrup, microalgae

(sea food like spirulina, Chlorella, Blur green algae, etc).

Plants cultivated to obtain the biofuel.

Ans Wheat, maize, potatoes, sugarcane, Jatropha curcas

Give examples of different types of cheese.

Ans i. Cream cheese ii. Cottage cheese iii.Parmesan cheese iv. Cheddar cheese

Give any four examples of bacteria used in beverage.

Ans i. Lactobacillus brevis

Candida

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Hansenula

Pichia

Saccharomyces

Microbal enzymes

Ans Oxido – reductases, transferases, monobactam, bacitracin, erythromycin, gentamicin, neomycin, streptomycin, tetracylines, vancomycin.

Suggest remedies / measures 3

1 Precautions for proper decomposition of domestic waste.

Ans i. Domestic wastes should be properly segregated into dry and wet. Only wet wastes which are degradable should be let into the landfill.

Compressed waste should be covered with layers of soil, saw dust, leafy waste and specific biochemical.

Completely filled pet should be sealed with soil slurry so that the bacteria present in the soil and other top layers can decompose the wastes quickly.

Complete the table/ web/ flow chart 6

Organic acids used in various commercial products and microbes useful for the same

Source

Amino

acid

Use

Sugar and beet molasses, ammonia

salt

……………..

Production of monosodium glutamate (Ajinomoto)

Sugar molasses, salt

Citric acid

……………..

Glucose, corn steep liquor

……………..

Production of minerals used as supplement for calcium and

iron

Molasses, corn steep liquor

Lactic acid

……………..

Molasses, corn steep liquor

……………..

……………..

Ans

Source

Amino acid

Use

Sugar and beet molasses, ammonia

salt

L-glutamic

acid

Production of monosodium glutamate (Ajinomoto)

Sugar molasses, salt

Citric acid

Drinks, toffees, chocolate production

Glucose, corn steep liquor

Gluconic acid

Production of minerals used as supplement for calcium

and iron

Molasses, corn steep liquor

Lactic acid

Source of nitrogen, production of vitamins.

Molasses, corn steep liquor

Itaconic acid

Paper, textile, plastic industry, gum production

Complete the chart of Xanthan gum.

Ans

Complete the sentences in paragraph 9

Complete the paragraph.

(Nocardia, Geobacter, Ideonella sakaiensis, Pseudomonas, Alcanovorax borkumensis, hydrocarbonoclastic, Acidophillium, strephtomyces)

Bacteria like …………… spp. and …………… have the ability to destroy the pyridines and other chemicals. Hence, these bacteria are used to clear the oil spills. These are called …………… bacteria. It has been observed that species like Vibrio, …………… can decompose the PET. Similarly, species of fungi like ……………

have ability of decomposing rubber from garbage, Sulphuric acid is source of energy for some species of bacteria like ……………. Hence these bacteria can control the soil pollution occurring due to acid rain. convert the salts of uranium into insoluble salts.

Ans Bacteria like Pseudomonas spp. and Alcanovorax borkumensis have the ability to destroy the pyridines and other chemicals. Hence, these bacteria are used to clear the oil spills. These are called hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. It has been observed that species like Vibrio, Ideonella sakaiensis can decompose the PET. Similarly, species of fungi like Nocardia have ability of decomposing rubber from garbage, Sulphuric acid is source of energy for some species of bacteria like Acidophillium. Hence these bacteria can control the soil pollution occurring due to acid rain. Geobacter convert the salts of uranium into insoluble salts.

Select the appropriate options and complete the following paragraph.

(Aspergillus, CO2, SO2, Glucanobacter, potassium ferrocyanide, microbial enzymes, Acetobacter, Soy sauce, Acetic acid, Vinegar, Lactic acid)

Mixture of bacterial strains like …………… and …………… is mixed with ethanol for its microbial degradation. As a result, alongwith the other by products are obtained through it, which is separated by rarefaction.

It is then bleached by using …………… and further pasteurized. At the end every small quantity of ……………

gas is mixed to produce (CH3COOH).

Ans Mixture of bacterial strains like Acetobacter and Glucanobacter is mixed with ethanol for its microbial degradation. As a result, acetic acid alongwith the other by products are obtained through it, which is separated by rarefaction. It is then bleached by using Potassium Ferrocyanide and further pasteurized. At the end every small quantity of SO2 gas is mixed to produce Vinegar (CH3COOH).

Complete the paragraph:

(Fluoroacetamide, nitrogen, Azotobacter, nutrients, chemical fertilizers, fermentation, nitrogenase, microbes)

Some microbes-containing inoculants are produced by process of These inoculants are sprayed

on seeds before sowing and some of the inoculants are released into plants. Microbes in the inoculants help in plant growth by supplying ……………. They improve the quality of vegetarian food. Solution containing

…………….. and artificial …………… is used in organic farming. Soil pollution occurring due to chemical fertilizers is prevented due to use of these solutions. .. -like chemicals are mixed with soil due to use

of chemical pesticides in agriculture. These prove to be harmful to other plants and animals as well as cause skin diseases to human. These pesticides in the soil can be destroyed with the help of …………… .

Ans Some microbes-containing inoculants are produced by process of fermentation . These inoculants are sprayed on seeds before sowing and some of the inoculants are released into plants. Microbes in the inoculants help in plant growth by supplying nutrients . They improve the quality of vegetarian food. Solution containing Azotobacter and artificial nitrogenase is used in organic farming. Soil pollution occurring due to chemical fertilizers is prevented due to use of these solutions. Fluoroacetamide-like chemicals are mixed with soil due to use of chemical pesticides in agriculture. These prove to be harmful to other plants and animals as well as cause skin diseases to human. These pesticides in the soil can be destroyed with the help of microbes.

Write answers based on given diagram/ figure 12

1 i. Name the following method of solid waste management.

What type of waste is used in this method?

What kind of useful substances can be obtained from such methods?

Ans i. Modern landfill site.

The waste is used in this method is degradable waste being accumulated in urban areas.

The useful substances can be obtained from such methods are compost and methane gas.

2

Identify the process shown in the figure.

Explain the process in short.

Ans i. Modern land fill sites used for compost production process.

ii. Large pits are dug

Pits are lined with plastic sheet

Compressed degradable waste is dumped

Covered with layers of soil, Sawdust and bio chemicals

Mixing of Bioreactors for aeration

Sealed with soil slurry

Microles present in soil decompose the waste

Best quality compost is obtained

3

What is dumped in the pit ?

Which of the following cannot be used in the above process ? [fruit peels, dry leaves, bottles, plastic bags, cola cans]

How does the decay of the materials take place ?

Ans i. Compressed Degradable waste is dumped in the pit.

ii. Bottles, plastic bags and cola cans cannot be used as they are non-biodegradeable. iii.Microbes present in soil decay the waste material.

4

What does the following figure show ?

Is, the use of biofuel conventional ?

How is the carbon dioxide in the air utilized ?

Ans i. Biofuel production

No, the use of biofuel is not conventional.

The carbon dioxide in the air utilized by the plants during photosynthesis.

Answer the following 36

How can the oil spills of rivers and oceans be cleaned ?

Ans i. Spilling of petroleum oil common and it is fatal and toxic to the aquatic organisms.

It is not easy to remove the oil layer from surface of water by mechanical method.

Bacteria like Pseudomonas spp. and Alcanovorax borkumensis have the ability to destroy the pyridines and other chemicals from the oil. And hence they are used to clean the oil spills.

These are called as hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. (HCB)

HCB decompose the hydrocarbons and bring about the reaction of carbon with oxygen. CO2 and H2O with the help of O2 and thus oil spills are cleaned.

Bread and other products produced with the help of yeast become nutritive.

Ans i. Different types of breads are produced from flour of cereals.

Dough is formed by mixing of baker’s yeast – Saccharomyces cerevisiae, water, salt and other necessary materials with flour.

Due to fermentation of carbohydrates by yeast, sugar is converted in to carbondioxide (CO2) and ethanol.

Dough rises up due to CO2 and the bread becomes spongy. Compressed yeast is used in commercial bakery industry. It is available in dry, granular form for domestic use.

Yeast produced for commercial use contains various useful contents like carbohydrates, fats, proteins, various vitamins, and minerals.

Ingredients like vinegar, soya sauce and monosodium glutamate (ajinomoto) that are used in presently popular chinese food are produced by microbial fermentation.

Therefore, Bread and other products produced with the help of yeast become nutritive.

Why is it asked to segregate wet and dry waste in each home ?

Ans

Wet waste is organic waste which is degradeable in soil where as dry waste is inorganic and thus non-

degradeable.

Dry waste is extremely harmful to the environment & other organisms They should be rejected or treated separately.

Degradable waste being accumulated in urban areas is used for the purpose of biofuel production.

Compressed waste is dumped in the pit. It is covered with layers of soil, saw dust, leafy waste and specific biochemicals.

Bioreactors are mixed at some places. Microbes present in soil and other top layers decompose the waste.

Completely filled pit is sealed with soil slurry. Best quality compost is formed after few days. Such land filling sites can be reused after removal of compost.

Therefore, wet and dry waste should be segregated to avoid over pollution due to waste production.

Air – Soil -water management or What is the role of microbes in environmental management.

Ans i. Microbes have natural ability of decomposing the manmade chemicals. Hydrocarbons and other chemicals are transformed with the help of these abilities.

bacteria like Pseudomonas spp. and Alcanovorax borkumensis have the ability to destroy the pyridines

ii. and other chemicals. Hence, these bacteria are used to clear the oil spills. These are called as hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB).

Urban garbage consists of plastic, plastic is a chemical subastance PET (Polyethyleve Tereptithalate iii.polyster). species like Vibrio, Ideonella sakaiensis can decompose the PET. Similarly, species of fungi like

Actinomycetes, Streptomyces, Nocardia, Actinoplanes have ability of decomposing rubber from garbage.

Sulphuric acid is present in the acid rain can cause erosion of metals present in statues, bridges and

iv.building. But Sulphuric acid is source of energy for some species of bacteria like Acidophillium spp. and Acidobacillus ferroxidens. Hence, these bacteria can be used for soil pollution control.

Human being has made a very fast progress in technology ? Discuss ?

Ans i. Human being has made a very fast progress in technology. However, environmental pollution is also increasing with same speed.

ii. There are ways of control over air-, soil- and water pollution with the help of microbes. iii.Microbes have natural ability of decomposing the manmade chemicals.

Hydrocarbons and other chemicals are transformed with the help of these abilities. Some microbes remove the sulphur from fuels.

Metals like copper, iron, uranium, zinc, etc. leach into environment from low quality metalloids.

These are converted into compounds before leaching, with the help of thiobacilli and sulphobacilli.

Explain how is sewage management or treatment done ?

Ans i. In villages, domestic sewage is disposed off either in nearby soil or in biogas plant.

However, in cities, sewage needs to be carried to processing unit and acted upon by microbial processes.

Microbes which can decompose any compound as well as destroy the pathogens of cholera, typhoid, etc. are mixed with sewage.

They release methane and CO2 by decomposition of the carbon compounds present in sewage.

Phenol oxidizing bacteria decompose the xenobiotic chemicals present in sewage.

The sludge that settles down in this process can again be used as fertilizer.

Water released after microbial treatment is environmentally safe.

Microbes are used for bioremediation of environment polluted due to sewage.

Yoghurt is a milk product. How is it prepared commercially ?

Ans i. Yoghurt is a milk product produced with the help of lactobacilli (inoculant).

For maintaining the protein content, condensed milk powder is mixed with milk to be fermented for industrial production of yoghurt.

Milk is boiled and once it cools to warm temperature, bacterial strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii are added to it in 1:1 proportion.

Lactic acid is formed due to Streptococcus that makes the proteins to gel out that gives dense consistency to the yoghurt.

Acetaldehyde like compounds are formed due to lactobacilli that gives characteristic taste to the yoghurt.

Now a day, various fruit juices are mixed with yoghurt to impart different flavours. Ex. Strawberry yoghurt, banana yoghurt, etc.

Shelf life of yoghurt and its probiotic properties can be improved by pasteurization.

Explain preparation and uses of vinegar.

Ans i. Mixture of bacterial strains like Acetobacter and Glucanobacter is mixed with ethanol for its microbial degradation.

ii. Acetic acid and other by-products are obtained through it. iii.Acetic acid is separated from mixture by rarefaction.

Acetic acid is bleached with the help of potassium ferrocynide. Then, it is pasteurized. Finally, very small quantity of SO2 gas is mixed to produce vinegar.

Vinegar is used in pickles, sauce, ketch-up, chutneys. vi.Chemically, vinegar is 4% acetic acid.

Why is it necessary to ban the use of plastic bags ?

Ans i. Plastic bags pollute our land, and water, litter our land – scapes, choke up drainages and cause floods, and finally reach the ocean harming the marine life.

Plastic bags do not decompose completely and the manufacturing process is energy intensive

Plastic bags and pieces are mistaken for food by animals and birds both on land and water congesting their digestive system and harming them.

Plastic bags are not easy to recycle and harmful to human. Plastic fragments reach humans through food charni and can even cause cancer.

Microbes which can decompose any compound as well as destroy the pathogens of cholera, typhoid, etc. are mixed with sewage ? Explain ?

Ans i. In villages, domestic sewage is disposed off either in nearby soil or in biogas plant.

However, in cities, sewage needs to be carried to processing unit and acted upon by microbial processes.

Microbes which can decompose any compound as well as destroy the pathogens of cholera, typhoid, etc. are mixed with sewage.

They release methane and CO2 by decomposition of the carbon compounds present in sewage. Phenol oxidizing bacteria decompose the xenobiotic chemicals present in sewage.

The sludge that settles down in this process can again be used as fertilizer. Water released after microbial treatment is environmentally safe.

Microbes are used for bioremediation of environment polluted due to sewage.

Now-a-days, instead of chemical catalysts, microbial enzymes are used in chemical industry ? Explain ?

Ans i. These enzymes are active at low temperature, pH and pressure; due to which energy is saved and erosion- proof instruments are also not necessary.

Enzymes carry out specific processes; hence unnecessary byproducts are not formed due to which expenses on purification are minimised.

In case of microbial enzymatic reactions, elimination and decomposition of waste material is avoided and enzymes can be reused.

Hence, such enzymes are eco-friendly.

Some examples of microbial enzymes are oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, ligases, etc.

Thus, now-a-days , instead of chemical catalysts, microbial enzymes are used in chemical industry.

i. What is clean technology?

ii.Why is it essential to ban plastic bags?

Ans i. The clean technology is the control over air pollution, soil pollution and water pollution with the help of microbes.

There is extensive use of plastic bags.

Even after many years, plastic is not decomposed and the contents in it do not dissolve leads to soil pollution.

Plastic bags thrown in drains obstruct the flow of streams, stagnant sewage water is a cause of many diseases.

The plastic bags are eaten by the cattle can lead to stomach cancer.

The poisonous gas mixes in the environment by burning plastic bags. Due to many such hazardous consequences, plastic bags should be banned.

Answer the following in detail 15

Substances obtained by microbial processing and their roles.

Substances obtained by microbial processing

Roles

Citirc, Malic and Lactic acid

……………

…………….

Protein binding

Nycin and natamycin

……………

……………

Antioxidants, vitamins.

Beta carotene, lycopenes, xanthenes, lutein

……………

…………….

Emulsifiers

Vanillin, Ethyl butyrate (fruit flavour), peppermint flavour, essence of various fruits and flowers

 

……………

 

……………

Artificial sweetener (low calorie)

Ans

Substances obtained by microbial processing

Roles

Citirc, Malic and Lactic acid

To impart acidity

Glutamic acid, Lysine, Tryptophan

Protein binding

Nycin and natamycin

Microbial restrictor

Ascorbic acid (Vit. C), B12, B2

Antioxidants, vitamins.

Beta carotene, lycopenes, xanthenes, lutein

Edible colours

Polysaccharides, glycolipids

Emulsifiers

Vanillin, Ethyl butyrate (fruit flavour), peppermint flavour, essence of various fruits and flowers

 

Essence

 

Xylitol, aspartame

Artificial sweetener (low calorie)

Cheese is produced on large scale from the abundantly available cow milk all over the world. First, chemical and microbiological tests of milk are performed. Some colours and microbes like Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus cremoris, and Streptococcus thermophilus are mixed with milk. It imparts sourness to the milk. After this, to impart the dense texture, whey (water in yoghurt) needs to be removed. An enzyme, rennet obtained from alimentary canal of cattle was being traditionally used earlier. However, an enzyme protease obtained from fungi is used at present to produce vegetarian cheese. The whey is separated from yoghurt (which has some other uses). Then, process of production of cheese is started through steps like cutting the solid yoghurt into pieces, washing, rubbing, salting, and mixing of essential microbes, pigments and flavors. Then, cheese is pressed and cut into pieces and stored for ripening.

Give any two microbes used in cheese production. (1)

Why the cheese is stored? (1) iii.What enzyme is used to prepare vegetarian cheese?(1)

iv.What processes are involved in cheese production? (2)

Ans i. Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus cremoris, and Streptococcus thermophilus. [ any 2]

The cheese is stored for ripening as to increase the flavour.

An enzyme protease obtained from fungi is used at present to produce vegetarian cheese.

Process of production of cheese is started through steps like cutting the solid yoghurt into pieces, washing, rubbing, salting, and mixing of essential microbes, pigments and flavors.

Production of beverages.

     

Name of beverage

Fruit

Microbe used

Role of microbe

     

Caffea arabica

 

Separating seeds from fruit

 

…………….

……………..

   
 

Candida, Hansenula, Pichia,Saccharomyces.

   

………………

…………….

Cocoa

     
 

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

   

Grapes

…………….

……………..

     
   

Fermentation of juice

 

Apple

……………

……………

     

Ans

     

Name of beverage

Fruit

Microbe used

Role of microbe

     

Caffea arabica

 

Separating seeds from fruit

 

Lactobacillus brevis

Coffee

   

Theobroma cacao

Candida, Hansenula, Pichia,Saccharomyces.

Separating seeds from fruit

 

Cocoa

 
 

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Fermentation of juice

 

Grapes

Wine

   
 

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Fermentation of juice

 

Apple

Cider

   
 

SAMARTH COACHING CLASSES

10 (Semi English)

Science And Technology – II-

SEAT NO:

DATE: 28-08-22

TIME: 2HR

MARKS: 212

             

Multiple Choice Questions 12

In which of the following industries, microbial enzymes are not used?

Glass industry b. Cheese industry c. Tanning industry d. Paper industry.

Ans Option a.

Chemical Formula of vinegar –

CH3COOH b. CH3 (CO)2

Ans Option a.

c. CH3 (CH2)2 CH2

d. CH3CHO

Cheese formed after ripening for 12-18 months is known as

Cream cheese b. Semi-hard cheese

c. Parmesan cheese d. None of these

Ans Option c.

a by – product of fermentation is a biopesticide.

Spinosad b. Lactose c. Butyric Acid d. Ethanol

Ans Option a.

Sewage genes affected our house or apartment should be disposed off is expect –

Lau fills b. Ores hands c. Rivers d. Dumping area

Ans Option d.

Citric acid used in production of beverages, toffees, chocolates is obtained by fermentation of by

aspergillus niger.

Grapes b. Sugar molasses c. Apple d. Coffee nuts

Ans Option b.

…………… form the colonies of useful microbes in alimentary canal and control other microbes and their metabolic activities, improve resistance.

Carbohydrate b. Vitamins c. Probiotics d. Proteins

Ans Option c.

Cheese used in western kind of food is ……………

Cheddar b. Cottage c. Mozzarella d. Yoghurt

Ans Option b.

Food materials like cold drinks, ice-creams, cakes, juices are available in various causes and flaneuse are derived from.

Plants b. Animals c. Flowers d. Microbes

Ans Option d.

is used as a low calories artificial sweetner.

Lactose b. Sucrose c. Xylitol d. Fructose

Ans Option c.

Subtance prepared by using dry yeast on commercial basis is

Bread b. Yoghurt c. Vinegar d. Cheese

Ans Option a.

Fermentation process while conversion of milk into yoghurt ?

Saccharomyces cerevisiae b. Bifidobacterium bifidum

c. Acidophilus d. Lactobacillus

Ans Option d.

Find the odd one out 5

Lactobacillus lactic, Lactobacillus cremoris, Streptococcus thermophiles, Streptococcus bovis

Ans Streptococcus bovis

Transferases, Lyases, Ligases, Rennet

Ans Rennet

Itaconic acid, Citric acid, Glutamic acid, Sulphuric acid.

Ans Sulphuric acid

Yoghurt, Cream, Toffee, Cheese

Ans Toffee

Bovis, Vibrio, Ideonella, Sakaiensis

Ans Bovis

Find co-related terms 5

Vanillin : Essence : : Xylitol : ……………

Ans Vanillin : Essence : : Xylitol : Artificial sweetener

Lactobacillus delbrueckii : Lactic acid : : Aspergillus itaconius : ……………

Ans Lactobacillus delbrueckii : Lactic acid : : Aspergillus itaconius : Itaconic acid

Caffea arabica : Lactobacillus brevis :: Apple : …………… .

Ans Caffea arabica : Lactobacillus brevis :: Apple : Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Natamyscin : Microbial restrictor : : Xanthenes : ……………

Ans Natamyscin : Microbial restrictor : : Xanthenes : Edible colours

Yoghurt : Lactobacilli : : Bread : ……………

Ans Yoghurt : Lactobacilli : : Bread : Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Match the pair 6

1

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Xylitol

a. Colour

ii. Citric acid

b. Artificial sweetner

 

c. To impact acidity

Ans

i. Xylitol

Artificial sweetner

ii. Citric acid

To impact acidity

2

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Saccharomyces cerevisiae

a, Clean fuel

ii. Ethanol

b. Cider

 

c. Coffee

Ans

i. Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Cider

Clean fuel

ii. Ethanol

3

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Grapes

a. Production of minrals like Calcium and iron

ii. Xanthene

b. Wine

 

c. Xanthomonas

Ans

i. Grapes

Wine

ii. Xanthene

Xanthomonas

4

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Gluconic acid

a. Artificial sweetener

ii. Xylitol

b. Production of minrals like Calcium and iron

 

c. Wine

Ans

i. Gluconic acid

Production of minrals like Calcium and iron

ii. Xylitol

Artificial sweetener.

5

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Ethanol

a. Production of minrals like Calcium and iron

ii. Grapes

b. Moke-less fuel

 

c. Wine

Ans

i. Ethanol

Smoke-less fuel

ii. Grapes

Wine

6

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Lycopenes

a, Protein binding

ii. Nycin

b. Colour

 

c. Microbial restrictor

Ans

i. Lycopenes

Colour

ii. Nycin

Microbial restrictor

State True or False 9

Milk processed using lactobacilli.

Ans Milk processed using lactobacilli. – True

Rifamycin is not effective against tuberculosis

Ans Rifamycin is not effective against tuberculosis – False

Whey is in-corporated into. Cheese to give it texture

Ans Whey is in-corporated into. Cheese to give it texture – False

Nocardia species of fungi recompenses rubber

Ans Nocardia species of fungi recompenses rubber – True

Probiotics are harmful to humans

Ans Probiotics are harmful to humans – False

Hydrogen gas is considered as fuel in future

Ans Hydrogen gas is considered as fuel in future – True

Biofuel is renewable sources of energy

Ans Biofuel is renewable sources of energy – True

Land filling sites are lands in which are garbage from cities is dumped.

Ans Hand filling sites are lands in which are garbage from cities is dumped – True

Monosodium glutamate is Chemical name for ajinomoto

Ans Monosodium glutamate is Chemical name for ajinomoto – True

Name the following 12

Bacterial species which can decompose PET or plastic bottles.

Ans Ideonella sakaiensis

Microbes used for fermentation of grape juice to produce wine.

Ans Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Types of cheese, based on production.

Ans Cottage cheese Cream cheese

Mozzarella cheese Cheddar cheese

Organic acid used in Production of Paper, Textile, Plastic industry

Ans Itaconic acid

Organic acid used in Production of drinks, coffees, chocolate

Ans Citric acid

Fungus used to ferment wheat flour, rice, soybean while making soy sauce.

Ans Aspergillus oryzae.

Contents of Yeast

Ans Carbohydrates, Fasts, Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals, Minerals.

Name various probiotic products

Ans Yoghurt, Kefir, Miso soup, Pickles, Oils, Corn syrup, Dark chocolates, Microalgas, Sauerkraut

Fermented milk products.

Ans Yoghurt, Buttermilk, Cheese, Cream

Organic acids used in commercial products

Ans L – Glutamic acid, Citric acid, Gluonic acid, Lactic acid, Ltaconic acid

Various bacteria used in beverage production

Ans Lactobacillus brevis, Candida, Hausenula, Pichia, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cerevisiae

Gas released during fermentation by yeast which makes bread spongy.

Ans Carbon dioxide

Give scientific reasons 12

Yeast is used in bread production.

Ans i. Compressed yeast is used in commercial bakery industry.

It is available in any granular form for domestic use.

Yeast produced for commercial use contains various useful contents like carbohydrates, fats, proteins, various vitamins, and minerals.

Due to this bread, and other products produced with the help of yeast become nutrifine.

Use of mutant strains has been increased in industrial microbiology.

Ans i. Mutant strains developed have helped to avoid unnecessary steps and materials thus saving time and labour.

They have helped in the expansion of industries like fermentation and resultant products, production of raw materials for chemicals, enzymes, nutrients and medicines.

Microbes are extensively used for garbage management and pollution control thus helpful in environmental management.

Microbial enzymes are used instead of chemical catalysts in chemical industry.

Ans i. Because enzymes are active at low temperature. pH and pressure; due to which energy is saved and erosion-proof instruments are also not necessary.

Enzymes carry out specific processes; hence unnecessary byproducts are not formed due to which expenses on purification are minimised.

Mixture of bacterial strains is used in Ethanol to produce vinegar.

Ans i. Because when bacterial strains are mixed with ethanol for its microbial degradation. Acetic acid and other by-products are obtained through it.

Acetic acid is separated from mixture by rarefaction. Acetic acid is bleached with the help of potassium ferrocynide. Then, it is pasteurized. Finally, very small quantity of SO2 gas is mixed to produce vinegar.

Enzymes obtained from microbial process are mixed with detergent.

Ans i. Because, process of dirt / mark removal occurs at low temperature for due mixing of enzymes with detergents.

Hence enzymes are eco-friendly.

Bacteria can control the soil pollution occurring due to acid rain.

Ans i. Nitrogen and Sulphur dioxide generated due to burning of fuels like coal, diesel, petrol, etc. lead to problems like acid-rain.

Sulphuric acid is present in the acid rain and materials coming out of mines. iii.Erosion of metals present in statues, bridges and buildings occurs due to it.

Sulphuric acid is source of energy for some species of bacteria like Acidophillium spp. and Acidobacillus ferroxidens.

Hence, these bacteria can control the soil pollution occurring due to acid rain.

Laws / Define / Principles 10

Define Applied Microbiology

Ans Branch of biology in which study of the enzymes related to some prokaryotes and eukaryotic microbes, proteins, applied genetics, molecular biology, etc. is performed; is called as applied microbiology.

Define Antibiotics

Ans Many diseases of human and other animals have been controlled due to antibiotics obtained from different types of bacteria and fungi. Antibiotics like penicillin, cephalosporins, monobactam, bacitracin, erythromycin, gentamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, tetracyclins, vancomycin, etc. are used against various strains of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Rifamycin is effective against tuberculosis.

Define Industrial Microbiology

Ans Science is related to commercial use of microbes in which various economic, social and environment related processes and products are included. Various microbial processes useful for this purpose are carried out.

Define Bioinsecticides

Ans Bacterial and fungal toxins which can destroy pests and pathogens can be directly integrated into plants with the help of biotechnology are called Bioinsecticides.

ex. Spinosad is a byproduct of fermentation is a biopesticide.

Define Hydrocarbonablastic Bacteria (HCB)

Ans Bacteria like Pseudomonas spp. and Alcanovorax borkumensis have the ability to destroy the pyridines and other chemicals. Hence, these bacteria are used to clear the oil spills. These are called as hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria.

Write Short Notes 14

Write a note on cheese production in detail.

Ans i. Cheese is produced on large scale from the abundantly available cow milk.

First, chemical and microbiological tests of milk are performed.

Some colours and microbes like Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus cremoris, and Streptococcus thermophilus are mixed with milk.

It imparts sourness to the milk. After this, to impart the dense texture, whey (water in yoghurt) needs to be removed.

An enzyme, rennet obtained from alimentary canal of cattle was being traditionally used earlier.

However, an enzyme protease obtained from fungi is used at present to produce vegetarian cheese.

The whey is separated from yoghurt (which has some other uses).

Then, process of production of cheese is started through steps like cutting the solid yoghurt into pieces, washing, rubbing, salting, and mixing of essential microbes, pigments and flavours.

Then, cheese is pressed and cut in to pieces and stored for ripening.

Write short note on microbes and fuels.

Ans i. Gaseous fuel – methane can be obtained by microbial anaerobic decomposition of urban agricultural and industrial waste.

Ethanol, an alcohol is a clean (smokeless) fuel obtained during fermentation of molasses by the yeast- Saccharomyces.

Hydrogen gas is considered to be the fuel of future. Hydrogen gas is released during bio-photolysis of water in which bacteria perform the photoreduction.

Write short note on Biofuels.

Ans i. Biofuel is important among the renewable sources of good energy

These fuels are available in solid, liquid, gaseous forms.

These fuels are available reality in plenty; and are reliable fuels for future.

Write short note on Bio – insecticides.

Ans i. Bacterial and fungal toxins which can destroy pests and pathogens can be directly integrated into plants with the help of biotechnology.

Being toxic to insects, they do not consume the plants.

Similar to bacteria, some species of fungi and viruses are useful as pesticides.

Spinosad, a byproduct of fermentation is a biopesticide.

Write short note on Modern Landfill site with diagram.

Ans

Degradable waste being accumulated in urban areas is used for this

Large pits are dug in open spaces far away from the residential area and those pits are lined with plastic sheets as a precaution against pollution of soil due to leaching of toxic and harmful materials.

Compressed waste is dumped in the pit. It is covered with layers of soil, saw dust, leafy waste and specific biochemicals. Bioreactors are mixed at some places.

Microbes present in soil and other top layers decompose the waste. Completely filled pit is sealed with soil slurry. Best quality compost is formed after few days.

Write short note on Importance of probiotics.

Ans

These products form the colonies of useful microbes in alimentary canal and control other microbes and

their metabolic activities, improve resistance and lower the ill-effects of harmful substances formed during metabolic activities.

Useful microbes become inactive due to antibiotics; probiotics make them active again. iii.Nowaday, probiotics are used for treatment of diarrhea and treatment of poultry also.

Write short note on Yoghurt products.

Ans i. Yoghurt is a milk product produced with the help of lactobacilli.

For maintaining the protein content, condensed milk powder is mixed with milk to be fermented

Milk is boiled and once it cools to warm temperature, bacterial strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii are added to it in 1:1 proportion.

Lactic acid is formed due to Streptococcus that makes the proteins to gel out that gives dense consistency

to the yoghurt. Acetaldehyde like compounds are formed due to lactobacilli hat gives characteristic taste to the yoghurt.

Write properties/characteristics/uses/advantage/effects. 8

What is role of microbes in compost production ?

Ans i. In composting micro organism break down the organic matter and produce carbon dioxide, water and heat.

Bacteria and fundi help in composting.

Bacteria use variety of enzyme, to break down the complex organic matter like cellulose, lignin etc.

Fungi like moulds and yeast also break down tough debris which enables bacteria to complete the decomposition.

Importance of xanthum gum in daily life.

Ans i. It imparts thickness to ice-creams, puddings, Choclates, with shakes, Choclates drinks, instant soups.

ii. This gum is obtained by fermentation of starch and molasses with the help of Xanthomonas species. iii.It is variously useful due to properties like solubility in hot and cold water, high density, etc.

iv.It is used for production of pigments, fertilizers, weedicides, textile pigments, tooth pastes, high quality paper, etc.

Benefits of mixing ethanol with petrol and diesel.

Ans i. Petrol and diesel are fossil fuels which are non renewable and are also on the verge of exhaustion.

ii. On the contrary we can produce as much as ethanol as we want since we have large amount of biomass. iii.This will reduce the consumption of fossil fuels

iv.Ethanol is a clean fuel and it reduces carbon monoxide emissions.

Importance of biopesticides in or ganic farming.

Ans i. Bacterial and fungal toxins which can destroy pests and pathogens can be directly integrated into plants with the help of biotechnology.

Being toxic to insects, they do not consume the plants.

Some species of fungi and viruses, spinosad, a byproduct of fermentation is a biopesticide.

Biopesticides are important because they are ecofriendly and do not cause any harm to the soil, water or air.

Complete the given flow chart / table 6

Copmplete the table of Milk production.

Ans

Complete the diagram of sewage after processing.

Ans

Complete the table of Aspergillus niger.

Ans

Distinguish between 4

Yoghurt product and Probiotics.

Ans

 

Yoghurt product

Probiotics

i.

Yoghurt is a much product with the help of lactobacillus

Milk products with active bacteria.

 

Milk is boiled and once it cools to warm temperature, bacterial strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii are added to it

in 1:1 proportion.

microbes maintain the balance of

intestinal microorganisms i.e. increase the population of microbes helping

the digestion.

ii.

 

Applied Microbiology and Industrial Microbiology

Ans

 

Applied Microbiology

Industrial Microbiology

i.

Branch of biology in which study of the enzymes related to some prokaryotes and eukaryotic

This science is related to commercial use of microbes in which various economic social

 
 

microbes, proteins, applied genitive, molecular biology etc… is performed.

and environment related process and products are product.

ii.

This study is used for the society and various products like food, medicines

Various microbial processes useful for this purpose are carried out.

Give examples 28

Antibiotics

Ans Penicillin, cephalosporin, monobactam, erythromycin, gentamicin, neomycin, streptomyein, tetracyclines, vancomycin.

Give any four examples of milk products.

Ans i. Cream ii. Cheese iii. Yoghurt iv. butter

Give examples of Plants cultivated to obtain fuels.

Ans i. Ethanol is the commonest biofuel which can be obtained by fermentation of sugar derived from: Sugar cane, Wheat, Sugar beets, Corn, molasses etc.

ii.Bio-diesel can be obtained from Jatropha, Castor oil, Cottan seed oil etc.

Give examples for bacteria used in clean technology.

Ans i. Pseudomonas spp

Alcanovorax borkumensis

Actinomycetes

Nocardia

Geobacter

Acidobacillus ferroxidens

Streptomyces viii.Actinoplanes

Thiobacilli

sulphobacilli

Food items in which vinegar is used as preservative.

Ans Pickles, sauce, ketchup, chutneys.

Give examples of organic acids used in commercial product.

Ans i. L- glutanic acid

ii. Citric acid iii.Lactic acid

iv.Itaconic acid

Give examples of active bacteria in probiotics ?

Ans i. Lactobacillus

Acidophillium

Lactobacillus cases

Bifidobacterium bifidum

Give example of Fuels obtained from biomass.

Ans i. Methane biogas

ethoanol

bio – diesel

Hydrogen – by bio photolysis of water.

Gobar gas

Species of fungi which can decompose rubber from garbage

Ans Actinomycetes, Streptomyces, Nocardia, Actinoplanes

Probiotic products.

Ans Yoghurt, Kefir, sauerkraut (pickle of cabbage), dark chocolate, miso soup, pickles, oils, corn syrup, microalgae

(sea food like spirulina, Chlorella, Blur green algae, etc).

Plants cultivated to obtain the biofuel.

Ans Wheat, maize, potatoes, sugarcane, Jatropha curcas

Give examples of different types of cheese.

Ans i. Cream cheese ii. Cottage cheese iii.Parmesan cheese iv. Cheddar cheese

Give any four examples of bacteria used in beverage.

Ans i. Lactobacillus brevis

Candida

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Hansenula

Pichia

Saccharomyces

Microbal enzymes

Ans Oxido – reductases, transferases, monobactam, bacitracin, erythromycin, gentamicin, neomycin, streptomycin, tetracylines, vancomycin.

Suggest remedies / measures 3

1 Precautions for proper decomposition of domestic waste.

Ans i. Domestic wastes should be properly segregated into dry and wet. Only wet wastes which are degradable should be let into the landfill.

Compressed waste should be covered with layers of soil, saw dust, leafy waste and specific biochemical.

Completely filled pet should be sealed with soil slurry so that the bacteria present in the soil and other top layers can decompose the wastes quickly.

Complete the table/ web/ flow chart 6

Organic acids used in various commercial products and microbes useful for the same

Source

Amino

acid

Use

Sugar and beet molasses, ammonia

salt

……………..

Production of monosodium glutamate (Ajinomoto)

Sugar molasses, salt

Citric acid

……………..

Glucose, corn steep liquor

……………..

Production of minerals used as supplement for calcium and

iron

Molasses, corn steep liquor

Lactic acid

……………..

Molasses, corn steep liquor

……………..

……………..

Ans

Source

Amino acid

Use

Sugar and beet molasses, ammonia

salt

L-glutamic

acid

Production of monosodium glutamate (Ajinomoto)

Sugar molasses, salt

Citric acid

Drinks, toffees, chocolate production

Glucose, corn steep liquor

Gluconic acid

Production of minerals used as supplement for calcium

and iron

Molasses, corn steep liquor

Lactic acid

Source of nitrogen, production of vitamins.

Molasses, corn steep liquor

Itaconic acid

Paper, textile, plastic industry, gum production

Complete the chart of Xanthan gum.

Ans

Complete the sentences in paragraph 9

Complete the paragraph.

(Nocardia, Geobacter, Ideonella sakaiensis, Pseudomonas, Alcanovorax borkumensis, hydrocarbonoclastic, Acidophillium, strephtomyces)

Bacteria like …………… spp. and …………… have the ability to destroy the pyridines and other chemicals. Hence, these bacteria are used to clear the oil spills. These are called …………… bacteria. It has been observed that species like Vibrio, …………… can decompose the PET. Similarly, species of fungi like ……………

have ability of decomposing rubber from garbage, Sulphuric acid is source of energy for some species of bacteria like ……………. Hence these bacteria can control the soil pollution occurring due to acid rain. convert the salts of uranium into insoluble salts.

Ans Bacteria like Pseudomonas spp. and Alcanovorax borkumensis have the ability to destroy the pyridines and other chemicals. Hence, these bacteria are used to clear the oil spills. These are called hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. It has been observed that species like Vibrio, Ideonella sakaiensis can decompose the PET. Similarly, species of fungi like Nocardia have ability of decomposing rubber from garbage, Sulphuric acid is source of energy for some species of bacteria like Acidophillium. Hence these bacteria can control the soil pollution occurring due to acid rain. Geobacter convert the salts of uranium into insoluble salts.

Select the appropriate options and complete the following paragraph.

(Aspergillus, CO2, SO2, Glucanobacter, potassium ferrocyanide, microbial enzymes, Acetobacter, Soy sauce, Acetic acid, Vinegar, Lactic acid)

Mixture of bacterial strains like …………… and …………… is mixed with ethanol for its microbial degradation. As a result, alongwith the other by products are obtained through it, which is separated by rarefaction.

It is then bleached by using …………… and further pasteurized. At the end every small quantity of ……………

gas is mixed to produce (CH3COOH).

Ans Mixture of bacterial strains like Acetobacter and Glucanobacter is mixed with ethanol for its microbial degradation. As a result, acetic acid alongwith the other by products are obtained through it, which is separated by rarefaction. It is then bleached by using Potassium Ferrocyanide and further pasteurized. At the end every small quantity of SO2 gas is mixed to produce Vinegar (CH3COOH).

Complete the paragraph:

(Fluoroacetamide, nitrogen, Azotobacter, nutrients, chemical fertilizers, fermentation, nitrogenase, microbes)

Some microbes-containing inoculants are produced by process of These inoculants are sprayed

on seeds before sowing and some of the inoculants are released into plants. Microbes in the inoculants help in plant growth by supplying ……………. They improve the quality of vegetarian food. Solution containing

…………….. and artificial …………… is used in organic farming. Soil pollution occurring due to chemical fertilizers is prevented due to use of these solutions. .. -like chemicals are mixed with soil due to use

of chemical pesticides in agriculture. These prove to be harmful to other plants and animals as well as cause skin diseases to human. These pesticides in the soil can be destroyed with the help of …………… .

Ans Some microbes-containing inoculants are produced by process of fermentation . These inoculants are sprayed on seeds before sowing and some of the inoculants are released into plants. Microbes in the inoculants help in plant growth by supplying nutrients . They improve the quality of vegetarian food. Solution containing Azotobacter and artificial nitrogenase is used in organic farming. Soil pollution occurring due to chemical fertilizers is prevented due to use of these solutions. Fluoroacetamide-like chemicals are mixed with soil due to use of chemical pesticides in agriculture. These prove to be harmful to other plants and animals as well as cause skin diseases to human. These pesticides in the soil can be destroyed with the help of microbes.

Write answers based on given diagram/ figure 12

1 i. Name the following method of solid waste management.

What type of waste is used in this method?

What kind of useful substances can be obtained from such methods?

Ans i. Modern landfill site.

The waste is used in this method is degradable waste being accumulated in urban areas.

The useful substances can be obtained from such methods are compost and methane gas.

2

Identify the process shown in the figure.

Explain the process in short.

Ans i. Modern land fill sites used for compost production process.

ii. Large pits are dug

Pits are lined with plastic sheet

Compressed degradable waste is dumped

Covered with layers of soil, Sawdust and bio chemicals

Mixing of Bioreactors for aeration

Sealed with soil slurry

Microles present in soil decompose the waste

Best quality compost is obtained

3

What is dumped in the pit ?

Which of the following cannot be used in the above process ? [fruit peels, dry leaves, bottles, plastic bags, cola cans]

How does the decay of the materials take place ?

Ans i. Compressed Degradable waste is dumped in the pit.

ii. Bottles, plastic bags and cola cans cannot be used as they are non-biodegradeable. iii.Microbes present in soil decay the waste material.

4

What does the following figure show ?

Is, the use of biofuel conventional ?

How is the carbon dioxide in the air utilized ?

Ans i. Biofuel production

No, the use of biofuel is not conventional.

The carbon dioxide in the air utilized by the plants during photosynthesis.

Answer the following 36

How can the oil spills of rivers and oceans be cleaned ?

Ans i. Spilling of petroleum oil common and it is fatal and toxic to the aquatic organisms.

It is not easy to remove the oil layer from surface of water by mechanical method.

Bacteria like Pseudomonas spp. and Alcanovorax borkumensis have the ability to destroy the pyridines and other chemicals from the oil. And hence they are used to clean the oil spills.

These are called as hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. (HCB)

HCB decompose the hydrocarbons and bring about the reaction of carbon with oxygen. CO2 and H2O with the help of O2 and thus oil spills are cleaned.

Bread and other products produced with the help of yeast become nutritive.

Ans i. Different types of breads are produced from flour of cereals.

Dough is formed by mixing of baker’s yeast – Saccharomyces cerevisiae, water, salt and other necessary materials with flour.

Due to fermentation of carbohydrates by yeast, sugar is converted in to carbondioxide (CO2) and ethanol.

Dough rises up due to CO2 and the bread becomes spongy. Compressed yeast is used in commercial bakery industry. It is available in dry, granular form for domestic use.

Yeast produced for commercial use contains various useful contents like carbohydrates, fats, proteins, various vitamins, and minerals.

Ingredients like vinegar, soya sauce and monosodium glutamate (ajinomoto) that are used in presently popular chinese food are produced by microbial fermentation.

Therefore, Bread and other products produced with the help of yeast become nutritive.

Why is it asked to segregate wet and dry waste in each home ?

Ans

Wet waste is organic waste which is degradeable in soil where as dry waste is inorganic and thus non-

degradeable.

Dry waste is extremely harmful to the environment & other organisms They should be rejected or treated separately.

Degradable waste being accumulated in urban areas is used for the purpose of biofuel production.

Compressed waste is dumped in the pit. It is covered with layers of soil, saw dust, leafy waste and specific biochemicals.

Bioreactors are mixed at some places. Microbes present in soil and other top layers decompose the waste.

Completely filled pit is sealed with soil slurry. Best quality compost is formed after few days. Such land filling sites can be reused after removal of compost.

Therefore, wet and dry waste should be segregated to avoid over pollution due to waste production.

Air – Soil -water management or What is the role of microbes in environmental management.

Ans i. Microbes have natural ability of decomposing the manmade chemicals. Hydrocarbons and other chemicals are transformed with the help of these abilities.

bacteria like Pseudomonas spp. and Alcanovorax borkumensis have the ability to destroy the pyridines

ii. and other chemicals. Hence, these bacteria are used to clear the oil spills. These are called as hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB).

Urban garbage consists of plastic, plastic is a chemical subastance PET (Polyethyleve Tereptithalate iii.polyster). species like Vibrio, Ideonella sakaiensis can decompose the PET. Similarly, species of fungi like

Actinomycetes, Streptomyces, Nocardia, Actinoplanes have ability of decomposing rubber from garbage.

Sulphuric acid is present in the acid rain can cause erosion of metals present in statues, bridges and

iv.building. But Sulphuric acid is source of energy for some species of bacteria like Acidophillium spp. and Acidobacillus ferroxidens. Hence, these bacteria can be used for soil pollution control.

Human being has made a very fast progress in technology ? Discuss ?

Ans i. Human being has made a very fast progress in technology. However, environmental pollution is also increasing with same speed.

ii. There are ways of control over air-, soil- and water pollution with the help of microbes. iii.Microbes have natural ability of decomposing the manmade chemicals.

Hydrocarbons and other chemicals are transformed with the help of these abilities. Some microbes remove the sulphur from fuels.

Metals like copper, iron, uranium, zinc, etc. leach into environment from low quality metalloids.

These are converted into compounds before leaching, with the help of thiobacilli and sulphobacilli.

Explain how is sewage management or treatment done ?

Ans i. In villages, domestic sewage is disposed off either in nearby soil or in biogas plant.

However, in cities, sewage needs to be carried to processing unit and acted upon by microbial processes.

Microbes which can decompose any compound as well as destroy the pathogens of cholera, typhoid, etc. are mixed with sewage.

They release methane and CO2 by decomposition of the carbon compounds present in sewage.

Phenol oxidizing bacteria decompose the xenobiotic chemicals present in sewage.

The sludge that settles down in this process can again be used as fertilizer.

Water released after microbial treatment is environmentally safe.

Microbes are used for bioremediation of environment polluted due to sewage.

Yoghurt is a milk product. How is it prepared commercially ?

Ans i. Yoghurt is a milk product produced with the help of lactobacilli (inoculant).

For maintaining the protein content, condensed milk powder is mixed with milk to be fermented for industrial production of yoghurt.

Milk is boiled and once it cools to warm temperature, bacterial strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii are added to it in 1:1 proportion.

Lactic acid is formed due to Streptococcus that makes the proteins to gel out that gives dense consistency to the yoghurt.

Acetaldehyde like compounds are formed due to lactobacilli that gives characteristic taste to the yoghurt.

Now a day, various fruit juices are mixed with yoghurt to impart different flavours. Ex. Strawberry yoghurt, banana yoghurt, etc.

Shelf life of yoghurt and its probiotic properties can be improved by pasteurization.

Explain preparation and uses of vinegar.

Ans i. Mixture of bacterial strains like Acetobacter and Glucanobacter is mixed with ethanol for its microbial degradation.

ii. Acetic acid and other by-products are obtained through it. iii.Acetic acid is separated from mixture by rarefaction.

Acetic acid is bleached with the help of potassium ferrocynide. Then, it is pasteurized. Finally, very small quantity of SO2 gas is mixed to produce vinegar.

Vinegar is used in pickles, sauce, ketch-up, chutneys. vi.Chemically, vinegar is 4% acetic acid.

Why is it necessary to ban the use of plastic bags ?

Ans i. Plastic bags pollute our land, and water, litter our land – scapes, choke up drainages and cause floods, and finally reach the ocean harming the marine life.

Plastic bags do not decompose completely and the manufacturing process is energy intensive

Plastic bags and pieces are mistaken for food by animals and birds both on land and water congesting their digestive system and harming them.

Plastic bags are not easy to recycle and harmful to human. Plastic fragments reach humans through food charni and can even cause cancer.

Microbes which can decompose any compound as well as destroy the pathogens of cholera, typhoid, etc. are mixed with sewage ? Explain ?

Ans i. In villages, domestic sewage is disposed off either in nearby soil or in biogas plant.

However, in cities, sewage needs to be carried to processing unit and acted upon by microbial processes.

Microbes which can decompose any compound as well as destroy the pathogens of cholera, typhoid, etc. are mixed with sewage.

They release methane and CO2 by decomposition of the carbon compounds present in sewage. Phenol oxidizing bacteria decompose the xenobiotic chemicals present in sewage.

The sludge that settles down in this process can again be used as fertilizer. Water released after microbial treatment is environmentally safe.

Microbes are used for bioremediation of environment polluted due to sewage.

Now-a-days, instead of chemical catalysts, microbial enzymes are used in chemical industry ? Explain ?

Ans i. These enzymes are active at low temperature, pH and pressure; due to which energy is saved and erosion- proof instruments are also not necessary.

Enzymes carry out specific processes; hence unnecessary byproducts are not formed due to which expenses on purification are minimised.

In case of microbial enzymatic reactions, elimination and decomposition of waste material is avoided and enzymes can be reused.

Hence, such enzymes are eco-friendly.

Some examples of microbial enzymes are oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, ligases, etc.

Thus, now-a-days , instead of chemical catalysts, microbial enzymes are used in chemical industry.

i. What is clean technology?

ii.Why is it essential to ban plastic bags?

Ans i. The clean technology is the control over air pollution, soil pollution and water pollution with the help of microbes.

There is extensive use of plastic bags.

Even after many years, plastic is not decomposed and the contents in it do not dissolve leads to soil pollution.

Plastic bags thrown in drains obstruct the flow of streams, stagnant sewage water is a cause of many diseases.

The plastic bags are eaten by the cattle can lead to stomach cancer.

The poisonous gas mixes in the environment by burning plastic bags. Due to many such hazardous consequences, plastic bags should be banned.

Answer the following in detail 15

Substances obtained by microbial processing and their roles.

Substances obtained by microbial processing

Roles

Citirc, Malic and Lactic acid

……………

…………….

Protein binding

Nycin and natamycin

……………

……………

Antioxidants, vitamins.

Beta carotene, lycopenes, xanthenes, lutein

……………

…………….

Emulsifiers

Vanillin, Ethyl butyrate (fruit flavour), peppermint flavour, essence of various fruits and flowers

 

……………

 

……………

Artificial sweetener (low calorie)

Ans

Substances obtained by microbial processing

Roles

Citirc, Malic and Lactic acid

To impart acidity

Glutamic acid, Lysine, Tryptophan

Protein binding

Nycin and natamycin

Microbial restrictor

Ascorbic acid (Vit. C), B12, B2

Antioxidants, vitamins.

Beta carotene, lycopenes, xanthenes, lutein

Edible colours

Polysaccharides, glycolipids

Emulsifiers

Vanillin, Ethyl butyrate (fruit flavour), peppermint flavour, essence of various fruits and flowers

 

Essence

 

Xylitol, aspartame

Artificial sweetener (low calorie)

Cheese is produced on large scale from the abundantly available cow milk all over the world. First, chemical and microbiological tests of milk are performed. Some colours and microbes like Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus cremoris, and Streptococcus thermophilus are mixed with milk. It imparts sourness to the milk. After this, to impart the dense texture, whey (water in yoghurt) needs to be removed. An enzyme, rennet obtained from alimentary canal of cattle was being traditionally used earlier. However, an enzyme protease obtained from fungi is used at present to produce vegetarian cheese. The whey is separated from yoghurt (which has some other uses). Then, process of production of cheese is started through steps like cutting the solid yoghurt into pieces, washing, rubbing, salting, and mixing of essential microbes, pigments and flavors. Then, cheese is pressed and cut into pieces and stored for ripening.

Give any two microbes used in cheese production. (1)

Why the cheese is stored? (1) iii.What enzyme is used to prepare vegetarian cheese?(1)

iv.What processes are involved in cheese production? (2)

Ans i. Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus cremoris, and Streptococcus thermophilus. [ any 2]

The cheese is stored for ripening as to increase the flavour.

An enzyme protease obtained from fungi is used at present to produce vegetarian cheese.

Process of production of cheese is started through steps like cutting the solid yoghurt into pieces, washing, rubbing, salting, and mixing of essential microbes, pigments and flavors.

Production of beverages.

     

Name of beverage

Fruit

Microbe used

Role of microbe

     

Caffea arabica

 

Separating seeds from fruit

 

…………….

……………..

   
 

Candida, Hansenula, Pichia,Saccharomyces.

   

………………

…………….

Cocoa

     
 

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

   

Grapes

…………….

……………..

     
   

Fermentation of juice

 

Apple

……………

……………

     

Ans

     

Name of beverage

Fruit

Microbe used

Role of microbe

     

Caffea arabica

 

Separating seeds from fruit

 

Lactobacillus brevis

Coffee

   

Theobroma cacao

Candida, Hansenula, Pichia,Saccharomyces.

Separating seeds from fruit

 

Cocoa

 
 

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Fermentation of juice

 

Grapes

Wine

   
 

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Fermentation of juice

 

Apple

Cider

   
 

SAMARTH COACHING CLASSES

10 (Semi English)

Science And Technology – II-

SEAT NO:

DATE: 28-08-22

TIME: 2HR

MARKS: 212

             

Multiple Choice Questions 12

In which of the following industries, microbial enzymes are not used?

Glass industry b. Cheese industry c. Tanning industry d. Paper industry.

Ans Option a.

Chemical Formula of vinegar –

CH3COOH b. CH3 (CO)2

Ans Option a.

c. CH3 (CH2)2 CH2

d. CH3CHO

Cheese formed after ripening for 12-18 months is known as

Cream cheese b. Semi-hard cheese

c. Parmesan cheese d. None of these

Ans Option c.

a by – product of fermentation is a biopesticide.

Spinosad b. Lactose c. Butyric Acid d. Ethanol

Ans Option a.

Sewage genes affected our house or apartment should be disposed off is expect –

Lau fills b. Ores hands c. Rivers d. Dumping area

Ans Option d.

Citric acid used in production of beverages, toffees, chocolates is obtained by fermentation of by

aspergillus niger.

Grapes b. Sugar molasses c. Apple d. Coffee nuts

Ans Option b.

…………… form the colonies of useful microbes in alimentary canal and control other microbes and their metabolic activities, improve resistance.

Carbohydrate b. Vitamins c. Probiotics d. Proteins

Ans Option c.

Cheese used in western kind of food is ……………

Cheddar b. Cottage c. Mozzarella d. Yoghurt

Ans Option b.

Food materials like cold drinks, ice-creams, cakes, juices are available in various causes and flaneuse are derived from.

Plants b. Animals c. Flowers d. Microbes

Ans Option d.

is used as a low calories artificial sweetner.

Lactose b. Sucrose c. Xylitol d. Fructose

Ans Option c.

Subtance prepared by using dry yeast on commercial basis is

Bread b. Yoghurt c. Vinegar d. Cheese

Ans Option a.

Fermentation process while conversion of milk into yoghurt ?

Saccharomyces cerevisiae b. Bifidobacterium bifidum

c. Acidophilus d. Lactobacillus

Ans Option d.

Find the odd one out 5

Lactobacillus lactic, Lactobacillus cremoris, Streptococcus thermophiles, Streptococcus bovis

Ans Streptococcus bovis

Transferases, Lyases, Ligases, Rennet

Ans Rennet

Itaconic acid, Citric acid, Glutamic acid, Sulphuric acid.

Ans Sulphuric acid

Yoghurt, Cream, Toffee, Cheese

Ans Toffee

Bovis, Vibrio, Ideonella, Sakaiensis

Ans Bovis

Find co-related terms 5

Vanillin : Essence : : Xylitol : ……………

Ans Vanillin : Essence : : Xylitol : Artificial sweetener

Lactobacillus delbrueckii : Lactic acid : : Aspergillus itaconius : ……………

Ans Lactobacillus delbrueckii : Lactic acid : : Aspergillus itaconius : Itaconic acid

Caffea arabica : Lactobacillus brevis :: Apple : …………… .

Ans Caffea arabica : Lactobacillus brevis :: Apple : Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Natamyscin : Microbial restrictor : : Xanthenes : ……………

Ans Natamyscin : Microbial restrictor : : Xanthenes : Edible colours

Yoghurt : Lactobacilli : : Bread : ……………

Ans Yoghurt : Lactobacilli : : Bread : Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Match the pair 6

1

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Xylitol

a. Colour

ii. Citric acid

b. Artificial sweetner

 

c. To impact acidity

Ans

i. Xylitol

Artificial sweetner

ii. Citric acid

To impact acidity

2

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Saccharomyces cerevisiae

a, Clean fuel

ii. Ethanol

b. Cider

 

c. Coffee

Ans

i. Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Cider

Clean fuel

ii. Ethanol

3

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Grapes

a. Production of minrals like Calcium and iron

ii. Xanthene

b. Wine

 

c. Xanthomonas

Ans

i. Grapes

Wine

ii. Xanthene

Xanthomonas

4

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Gluconic acid

a. Artificial sweetener

ii. Xylitol

b. Production of minrals like Calcium and iron

 

c. Wine

Ans

i. Gluconic acid

Production of minrals like Calcium and iron

ii. Xylitol

Artificial sweetener.

5

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Ethanol

a. Production of minrals like Calcium and iron

ii. Grapes

b. Moke-less fuel

 

c. Wine

Ans

i. Ethanol

Smoke-less fuel

ii. Grapes

Wine

6

Column “A”

Column “B”

i. Lycopenes

a, Protein binding

ii. Nycin

b. Colour

 

c. Microbial restrictor

Ans

i. Lycopenes

Colour

ii. Nycin

Microbial restrictor

State True or False 9

Milk processed using lactobacilli.

Ans Milk processed using lactobacilli. – True

Rifamycin is not effective against tuberculosis

Ans Rifamycin is not effective against tuberculosis – False

Whey is in-corporated into. Cheese to give it texture

Ans Whey is in-corporated into. Cheese to give it texture – False

Nocardia species of fungi recompenses rubber

Ans Nocardia species of fungi recompenses rubber – True

Probiotics are harmful to humans

Ans Probiotics are harmful to humans – False

Hydrogen gas is considered as fuel in future

Ans Hydrogen gas is considered as fuel in future – True

Biofuel is renewable sources of energy

Ans Biofuel is renewable sources of energy – True

Land filling sites are lands in which are garbage from cities is dumped.

Ans Hand filling sites are lands in which are garbage from cities is dumped – True

Monosodium glutamate is Chemical name for ajinomoto

Ans Monosodium glutamate is Chemical name for ajinomoto – True

Name the following 12

Bacterial species which can decompose PET or plastic bottles.

Ans Ideonella sakaiensis

Microbes used for fermentation of grape juice to produce wine.

Ans Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Types of cheese, based on production.

Ans Cottage cheese Cream cheese

Mozzarella cheese Cheddar cheese

Organic acid used in Production of Paper, Textile, Plastic industry

Ans Itaconic acid

Organic acid used in Production of drinks, coffees, chocolate

Ans Citric acid

Fungus used to ferment wheat flour, rice, soybean while making soy sauce.

Ans Aspergillus oryzae.

Contents of Yeast

Ans Carbohydrates, Fasts, Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals, Minerals.

Name various probiotic products

Ans Yoghurt, Kefir, Miso soup, Pickles, Oils, Corn syrup, Dark chocolates, Microalgas, Sauerkraut

Fermented milk products.

Ans Yoghurt, Buttermilk, Cheese, Cream

Organic acids used in commercial products

Ans L – Glutamic acid, Citric acid, Gluonic acid, Lactic acid, Ltaconic acid

Various bacteria used in beverage production

Ans Lactobacillus brevis, Candida, Hausenula, Pichia, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cerevisiae

Gas released during fermentation by yeast which makes bread spongy.

Ans Carbon dioxide

Give scientific reasons 12

Yeast is used in bread production.

Ans i. Compressed yeast is used in commercial bakery industry.

It is available in any granular form for domestic use.

Yeast produced for commercial use contains various useful contents like carbohydrates, fats, proteins, various vitamins, and minerals.

Due to this bread, and other products produced with the help of yeast become nutrifine.

Use of mutant strains has been increased in industrial microbiology.

Ans i. Mutant strains developed have helped to avoid unnecessary steps and materials thus saving time and labour.

They have helped in the expansion of industries like fermentation and resultant products, production of raw materials for chemicals, enzymes, nutrients and medicines.

Microbes are extensively used for garbage management and pollution control thus helpful in environmental management.

Microbial enzymes are used instead of chemical catalysts in chemical industry.

Ans i. Because enzymes are active at low temperature. pH and pressure; due to which energy is saved and erosion-proof instruments are also not necessary.

Enzymes carry out specific processes; hence unnecessary byproducts are not formed due to which expenses on purification are minimised.

Mixture of bacterial strains is used in Ethanol to produce vinegar.

Ans i. Because when bacterial strains are mixed with ethanol for its microbial degradation. Acetic acid and other by-products are obtained through it.

Acetic acid is separated from mixture by rarefaction. Acetic acid is bleached with the help of potassium ferrocynide. Then, it is pasteurized. Finally, very small quantity of SO2 gas is mixed to produce vinegar.

Enzymes obtained from microbial process are mixed with detergent.

Ans i. Because, process of dirt / mark removal occurs at low temperature for due mixing of enzymes with detergents.

Hence enzymes are eco-friendly.

Bacteria can control the soil pollution occurring due to acid rain.

Ans i. Nitrogen and Sulphur dioxide generated due to burning of fuels like coal, diesel, petrol, etc. lead to problems like acid-rain.

Sulphuric acid is present in the acid rain and materials coming out of mines. iii.Erosion of metals present in statues, bridges and buildings occurs due to it.

Sulphuric acid is source of energy for some species of bacteria like Acidophillium spp. and Acidobacillus ferroxidens.

Hence, these bacteria can control the soil pollution occurring due to acid rain.

Laws / Define / Principles 10

Define Applied Microbiology

Ans Branch of biology in which study of the enzymes related to some prokaryotes and eukaryotic microbes, proteins, applied genetics, molecular biology, etc. is performed; is called as applied microbiology.

Define Antibiotics

Ans Many diseases of human and other animals have been controlled due to antibiotics obtained from different types of bacteria and fungi. Antibiotics like penicillin, cephalosporins, monobactam, bacitracin, erythromycin, gentamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, tetracyclins, vancomycin, etc. are used against various strains of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Rifamycin is effective against tuberculosis.

Define Industrial Microbiology

Ans Science is related to commercial use of microbes in which various economic, social and environment related processes and products are included. Various microbial processes useful for this purpose are carried out.

Define Bioinsecticides

Ans Bacterial and fungal toxins which can destroy pests and pathogens can be directly integrated into plants with the help of biotechnology are called Bioinsecticides.

ex. Spinosad is a byproduct of fermentation is a biopesticide.

Define Hydrocarbonablastic Bacteria (HCB)

Ans Bacteria like Pseudomonas spp. and Alcanovorax borkumensis have the ability to destroy the pyridines and other chemicals. Hence, these bacteria are used to clear the oil spills. These are called as hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria.

Write Short Notes 14

Write a note on cheese production in detail.

Ans i. Cheese is produced on large scale from the abundantly available cow milk.

First, chemical and microbiological tests of milk are performed.

Some colours and microbes like Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus cremoris, and Streptococcus thermophilus are mixed with milk.

It imparts sourness to the milk. After this, to impart the dense texture, whey (water in yoghurt) needs to be removed.

An enzyme, rennet obtained from alimentary canal of cattle was being traditionally used earlier.

However, an enzyme protease obtained from fungi is used at present to produce vegetarian cheese.

The whey is separated from yoghurt (which has some other uses).

Then, process of production of cheese is started through steps like cutting the solid yoghurt into pieces, washing, rubbing, salting, and mixing of essential microbes, pigments and flavours.

Then, cheese is pressed and cut in to pieces and stored for ripening.

Write short note on microbes and fuels.

Ans i. Gaseous fuel – methane can be obtained by microbial anaerobic decomposition of urban agricultural and industrial waste.

Ethanol, an alcohol is a clean (smokeless) fuel obtained during fermentation of molasses by the yeast- Saccharomyces.

Hydrogen gas is considered to be the fuel of future. Hydrogen gas is released during bio-photolysis of water in which bacteria perform the photoreduction.

Write short note on Biofuels.

Ans i. Biofuel is important among the renewable sources of good energy

These fuels are available in solid, liquid, gaseous forms.

These fuels are available reality in plenty; and are reliable fuels for future.

Write short note on Bio – insecticides.

Ans i. Bacterial and fungal toxins which can destroy pests and pathogens can be directly integrated into plants with the help of biotechnology.

Being toxic to insects, they do not consume the plants.

Similar to bacteria, some species of fungi and viruses are useful as pesticides.

Spinosad, a byproduct of fermentation is a biopesticide.

Write short note on Modern Landfill site with diagram.

Ans

Degradable waste being accumulated in urban areas is used for this

Large pits are dug in open spaces far away from the residential area and those pits are lined with plastic sheets as a precaution against pollution of soil due to leaching of toxic and harmful materials.

Compressed waste is dumped in the pit. It is covered with layers of soil, saw dust, leafy waste and specific biochemicals. Bioreactors are mixed at some places.

Microbes present in soil and other top layers decompose the waste. Completely filled pit is sealed with soil slurry. Best quality compost is formed after few days.

Write short note on Importance of probiotics.

Ans

These products form the colonies of useful microbes in alimentary canal and control other microbes and

their metabolic activities, improve resistance and lower the ill-effects of harmful substances formed during metabolic activities.

Useful microbes become inactive due to antibiotics; probiotics make them active again. iii.Nowaday, probiotics are used for treatment of diarrhea and treatment of poultry also.

Write short note on Yoghurt products.

Ans i. Yoghurt is a milk product produced with the help of lactobacilli.

For maintaining the protein content, condensed milk powder is mixed with milk to be fermented

Milk is boiled and once it cools to warm temperature, bacterial strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii are added to it in 1:1 proportion.

Lactic acid is formed due to Streptococcus that makes the proteins to gel out that gives dense consistency

to the yoghurt. Acetaldehyde like compounds are formed due to lactobacilli hat gives characteristic taste to the yoghurt.

Write properties/characteristics/uses/advantage/effects. 8

What is role of microbes in compost production ?

Ans i. In composting micro organism break down the organic matter and produce carbon dioxide, water and heat.

Bacteria and fundi help in composting.

Bacteria use variety of enzyme, to break down the complex organic matter like cellulose, lignin etc.

Fungi like moulds and yeast also break down tough debris which enables bacteria to complete the decomposition.

Importance of xanthum gum in daily life.

Ans i. It imparts thickness to ice-creams, puddings, Choclates, with shakes, Choclates drinks, instant soups.

ii. This gum is obtained by fermentation of starch and molasses with the help of Xanthomonas species. iii.It is variously useful due to properties like solubility in hot and cold water, high density, etc.

iv.It is used for production of pigments, fertilizers, weedicides, textile pigments, tooth pastes, high quality paper, etc.

Benefits of mixing ethanol with petrol and diesel.

Ans i. Petrol and diesel are fossil fuels which are non renewable and are also on the verge of exhaustion.

ii. On the contrary we can produce as much as ethanol as we want since we have large amount of biomass. iii.This will reduce the consumption of fossil fuels

iv.Ethanol is a clean fuel and it reduces carbon monoxide emissions.

Importance of biopesticides in or ganic farming.

Ans i. Bacterial and fungal toxins which can destroy pests and pathogens can be directly integrated into plants with the help of biotechnology.

Being toxic to insects, they do not consume the plants.

Some species of fungi and viruses, spinosad, a byproduct of fermentation is a biopesticide.

Biopesticides are important because they are ecofriendly and do not cause any harm to the soil, water or air.

Complete the given flow chart / table 6

Copmplete the table of Milk production.

Ans

Complete the diagram of sewage after processing.

Ans

Complete the table of Aspergillus niger.

Ans

Distinguish between 4

Yoghurt product and Probiotics.

Ans

 

Yoghurt product

Probiotics

i.

Yoghurt is a much product with the help of lactobacillus

Milk products with active bacteria.

 

Milk is boiled and once it cools to warm temperature, bacterial strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii are added to it

in 1:1 proportion.

microbes maintain the balance of

intestinal microorganisms i.e. increase the population of microbes helping

the digestion.

ii.

 

Applied Microbiology and Industrial Microbiology

Ans

 

Applied Microbiology

Industrial Microbiology

i.

Branch of biology in which study of the enzymes related to some prokaryotes and eukaryotic

This science is related to commercial use of microbes in which various economic social

 
 

microbes, proteins, applied genitive, molecular biology etc… is performed.

and environment related process and products are product.

ii.

This study is used for the society and various products like food, medicines

Various microbial processes useful for this purpose are carried out.

Give examples 28

Antibiotics

Ans Penicillin, cephalosporin, monobactam, erythromycin, gentamicin, neomycin, streptomyein, tetracyclines, vancomycin.

Give any four examples of milk products.

Ans i. Cream ii. Cheese iii. Yoghurt iv. butter

Give examples of Plants cultivated to obtain fuels.

Ans i. Ethanol is the commonest biofuel which can be obtained by fermentation of sugar derived from: Sugar cane, Wheat, Sugar beets, Corn, molasses etc.

ii.Bio-diesel can be obtained from Jatropha, Castor oil, Cottan seed oil etc.

Give examples for bacteria used in clean technology.

Ans i. Pseudomonas spp

Alcanovorax borkumensis

Actinomycetes

Nocardia

Geobacter

Acidobacillus ferroxidens

Streptomyces viii.Actinoplanes

Thiobacilli

sulphobacilli

Food items in which vinegar is used as preservative.

Ans Pickles, sauce, ketchup, chutneys.

Give examples of organic acids used in commercial product.

Ans i. L- glutanic acid

ii. Citric acid iii.Lactic acid

iv.Itaconic acid

Give examples of active bacteria in probiotics ?

Ans i. Lactobacillus

Acidophillium

Lactobacillus cases

Bifidobacterium bifidum

Give example of Fuels obtained from biomass.

Ans i. Methane biogas

ethoanol

bio – diesel

Hydrogen – by bio photolysis of water.

Gobar gas

Species of fungi which can decompose rubber from garbage

Ans Actinomycetes, Streptomyces, Nocardia, Actinoplanes

Probiotic products.

Ans Yoghurt, Kefir, sauerkraut (pickle of cabbage), dark chocolate, miso soup, pickles, oils, corn syrup, microalgae

(sea food like spirulina, Chlorella, Blur green algae, etc).

Plants cultivated to obtain the biofuel.

Ans Wheat, maize, potatoes, sugarcane, Jatropha curcas

Give examples of different types of cheese.

Ans i. Cream cheese ii. Cottage cheese iii.Parmesan cheese iv. Cheddar cheese

Give any four examples of bacteria used in beverage.

Ans i. Lactobacillus brevis

Candida

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Hansenula

Pichia

Saccharomyces

Microbal enzymes

Ans Oxido – reductases, transferases, monobactam, bacitracin, erythromycin, gentamicin, neomycin, streptomycin, tetracylines, vancomycin.

Suggest remedies / measures 3

1 Precautions for proper decomposition of domestic waste.

Ans i. Domestic wastes should be properly segregated into dry and wet. Only wet wastes which are degradable should be let into the landfill.

Compressed waste should be covered with layers of soil, saw dust, leafy waste and specific biochemical.

Completely filled pet should be sealed with soil slurry so that the bacteria present in the soil and other top layers can decompose the wastes quickly.

Complete the table/ web/ flow chart 6

Organic acids used in various commercial products and microbes useful for the same

Source

Amino

acid

Use

Sugar and beet molasses, ammonia

salt

……………..

Production of monosodium glutamate (Ajinomoto)

Sugar molasses, salt

Citric acid

……………..

Glucose, corn steep liquor

……………..

Production of minerals used as supplement for calcium and

iron

Molasses, corn steep liquor

Lactic acid

……………..

Molasses, corn steep liquor

……………..

……………..

Ans

Source

Amino acid

Use

Sugar and beet molasses, ammonia

salt

L-glutamic

acid

Production of monosodium glutamate (Ajinomoto)

Sugar molasses, salt

Citric acid

Drinks, toffees, chocolate production

Glucose, corn steep liquor

Gluconic acid

Production of minerals used as supplement for calcium

and iron

Molasses, corn steep liquor

Lactic acid

Source of nitrogen, production of vitamins.

Molasses, corn steep liquor

Itaconic acid

Paper, textile, plastic industry, gum production

Complete the chart of Xanthan gum.

Ans

Complete the sentences in paragraph 9

Complete the paragraph.

(Nocardia, Geobacter, Ideonella sakaiensis, Pseudomonas, Alcanovorax borkumensis, hydrocarbonoclastic, Acidophillium, strephtomyces)

Bacteria like …………… spp. and …………… have the ability to destroy the pyridines and other chemicals. Hence, these bacteria are used to clear the oil spills. These are called …………… bacteria. It has been observed that species like Vibrio, …………… can decompose the PET. Similarly, species of fungi like ……………

have ability of decomposing rubber from garbage, Sulphuric acid is source of energy for some species of bacteria like ……………. Hence these bacteria can control the soil pollution occurring due to acid rain. convert the salts of uranium into insoluble salts.

Ans Bacteria like Pseudomonas spp. and Alcanovorax borkumensis have the ability to destroy the pyridines and other chemicals. Hence, these bacteria are used to clear the oil spills. These are called hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. It has been observed that species like Vibrio, Ideonella sakaiensis can decompose the PET. Similarly, species of fungi like Nocardia have ability of decomposing rubber from garbage, Sulphuric acid is source of energy for some species of bacteria like Acidophillium. Hence these bacteria can control the soil pollution occurring due to acid rain. Geobacter convert the salts of uranium into insoluble salts.

Select the appropriate options and complete the following paragraph.

(Aspergillus, CO2, SO2, Glucanobacter, potassium ferrocyanide, microbial enzymes, Acetobacter, Soy sauce, Acetic acid, Vinegar, Lactic acid)

Mixture of bacterial strains like …………… and …………… is mixed with ethanol for its microbial degradation. As a result, alongwith the other by products are obtained through it, which is separated by rarefaction.

It is then bleached by using …………… and further pasteurized. At the end every small quantity of ……………

gas is mixed to produce (CH3COOH).

Ans Mixture of bacterial strains like Acetobacter and Glucanobacter is mixed with ethanol for its microbial degradation. As a result, acetic acid alongwith the other by products are obtained through it, which is separated by rarefaction. It is then bleached by using Potassium Ferrocyanide and further pasteurized. At the end every small quantity of SO2 gas is mixed to produce Vinegar (CH3COOH).

Complete the paragraph:

(Fluoroacetamide, nitrogen, Azotobacter, nutrients, chemical fertilizers, fermentation, nitrogenase, microbes)

Some microbes-containing inoculants are produced by process of These inoculants are sprayed

on seeds before sowing and some of the inoculants are released into plants. Microbes in the inoculants help in plant growth by supplying ……………. They improve the quality of vegetarian food. Solution containing

…………….. and artificial …………… is used in organic farming. Soil pollution occurring due to chemical fertilizers is prevented due to use of these solutions. .. -like chemicals are mixed with soil due to use

of chemical pesticides in agriculture. These prove to be harmful to other plants and animals as well as cause skin diseases to human. These pesticides in the soil can be destroyed with the help of …………… .

Ans Some microbes-containing inoculants are produced by process of fermentation . These inoculants are sprayed on seeds before sowing and some of the inoculants are released into plants. Microbes in the inoculants help in plant growth by supplying nutrients . They improve the quality of vegetarian food. Solution containing Azotobacter and artificial nitrogenase is used in organic farming. Soil pollution occurring due to chemical fertilizers is prevented due to use of these solutions. Fluoroacetamide-like chemicals are mixed with soil due to use of chemical pesticides in agriculture. These prove to be harmful to other plants and animals as well as cause skin diseases to human. These pesticides in the soil can be destroyed with the help of microbes.

Write answers based on given diagram/ figure 12

1 i. Name the following method of solid waste management.

What type of waste is used in this method?

What kind of useful substances can be obtained from such methods?

Ans i. Modern landfill site.

The waste is used in this method is degradable waste being accumulated in urban areas.

The useful substances can be obtained from such methods are compost and methane gas.

2

Identify the process shown in the figure.

Explain the process in short.

Ans i. Modern land fill sites used for compost production process.

ii. Large pits are dug

Pits are lined with plastic sheet

Compressed degradable waste is dumped

Covered with layers of soil, Sawdust and bio chemicals

Mixing of Bioreactors for aeration

Sealed with soil slurry

Microles present in soil decompose the waste

Best quality compost is obtained

3

What is dumped in the pit ?

Which of the following cannot be used in the above process ? [fruit peels, dry leaves, bottles, plastic bags, cola cans]

How does the decay of the materials take place ?

Ans i. Compressed Degradable waste is dumped in the pit.

ii. Bottles, plastic bags and cola cans cannot be used as they are non-biodegradeable. iii.Microbes present in soil decay the waste material.

4

What does the following figure show ?

Is, the use of biofuel conventional ?

How is the carbon dioxide in the air utilized ?

Ans i. Biofuel production

No, the use of biofuel is not conventional.

The carbon dioxide in the air utilized by the plants during photosynthesis.

Answer the following 36

How can the oil spills of rivers and oceans be cleaned ?

Ans i. Spilling of petroleum oil common and it is fatal and toxic to the aquatic organisms.

It is not easy to remove the oil layer from surface of water by mechanical method.

Bacteria like Pseudomonas spp. and Alcanovorax borkumensis have the ability to destroy the pyridines and other chemicals from the oil. And hence they are used to clean the oil spills.

These are called as hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. (HCB)

HCB decompose the hydrocarbons and bring about the reaction of carbon with oxygen. CO2 and H2O with the help of O2 and thus oil spills are cleaned.

Bread and other products produced with the help of yeast become nutritive.

Ans i. Different types of breads are produced from flour of cereals.

Dough is formed by mixing of baker’s yeast – Saccharomyces cerevisiae, water, salt and other necessary materials with flour.

Due to fermentation of carbohydrates by yeast, sugar is converted in to carbondioxide (CO2) and ethanol.

Dough rises up due to CO2 and the bread becomes spongy. Compressed yeast is used in commercial bakery industry. It is available in dry, granular form for domestic use.

Yeast produced for commercial use contains various useful contents like carbohydrates, fats, proteins, various vitamins, and minerals.

Ingredients like vinegar, soya sauce and monosodium glutamate (ajinomoto) that are used in presently popular chinese food are produced by microbial fermentation.

Therefore, Bread and other products produced with the help of yeast become nutritive.

Why is it asked to segregate wet and dry waste in each home ?

Ans

Wet waste is organic waste which is degradeable in soil where as dry waste is inorganic and thus non-

degradeable.

Dry waste is extremely harmful to the environment & other organisms They should be rejected or treated separately.

Degradable waste being accumulated in urban areas is used for the purpose of biofuel production.

Compressed waste is dumped in the pit. It is covered with layers of soil, saw dust, leafy waste and specific biochemicals.

Bioreactors are mixed at some places. Microbes present in soil and other top layers decompose the waste.

Completely filled pit is sealed with soil slurry. Best quality compost is formed after few days. Such land filling sites can be reused after removal of compost.

Therefore, wet and dry waste should be segregated to avoid over pollution due to waste production.

Air – Soil -water management or What is the role of microbes in environmental management.

Ans i. Microbes have natural ability of decomposing the manmade chemicals. Hydrocarbons and other chemicals are transformed with the help of these abilities.

bacteria like Pseudomonas spp. and Alcanovorax borkumensis have the ability to destroy the pyridines

ii. and other chemicals. Hence, these bacteria are used to clear the oil spills. These are called as hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB).

Urban garbage consists of plastic, plastic is a chemical subastance PET (Polyethyleve Tereptithalate iii.polyster). species like Vibrio, Ideonella sakaiensis can decompose the PET. Similarly, species of fungi like

Actinomycetes, Streptomyces, Nocardia, Actinoplanes have ability of decomposing rubber from garbage.

Sulphuric acid is present in the acid rain can cause erosion of metals present in statues, bridges and

iv.building. But Sulphuric acid is source of energy for some species of bacteria like Acidophillium spp. and Acidobacillus ferroxidens. Hence, these bacteria can be used for soil pollution control.

Human being has made a very fast progress in technology ? Discuss ?

Ans i. Human being has made a very fast progress in technology. However, environmental pollution is also increasing with same speed.

ii. There are ways of control over air-, soil- and water pollution with the help of microbes. iii.Microbes have natural ability of decomposing the manmade chemicals.

Hydrocarbons and other chemicals are transformed with the help of these abilities. Some microbes remove the sulphur from fuels.

Metals like copper, iron, uranium, zinc, etc. leach into environment from low quality metalloids.

These are converted into compounds before leaching, with the help of thiobacilli and sulphobacilli.

Explain how is sewage management or treatment done ?

Ans i. In villages, domestic sewage is disposed off either in nearby soil or in biogas plant.

However, in cities, sewage needs to be carried to processing unit and acted upon by microbial processes.

Microbes which can decompose any compound as well as destroy the pathogens of cholera, typhoid, etc. are mixed with sewage.

They release methane and CO2 by decomposition of the carbon compounds present in sewage.

Phenol oxidizing bacteria decompose the xenobiotic chemicals present in sewage.

The sludge that settles down in this process can again be used as fertilizer.

Water released after microbial treatment is environmentally safe.

Microbes are used for bioremediation of environment polluted due to sewage.

Yoghurt is a milk product. How is it prepared commercially ?

Ans i. Yoghurt is a milk product produced with the help of lactobacilli (inoculant).

For maintaining the protein content, condensed milk powder is mixed with milk to be fermented for industrial production of yoghurt.

Milk is boiled and once it cools to warm temperature, bacterial strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii are added to it in 1:1 proportion.

Lactic acid is formed due to Streptococcus that makes the proteins to gel out that gives dense consistency to the yoghurt.

Acetaldehyde like compounds are formed due to lactobacilli that gives characteristic taste to the yoghurt.

Now a day, various fruit juices are mixed with yoghurt to impart different flavours. Ex. Strawberry yoghurt, banana yoghurt, etc.

Shelf life of yoghurt and its probiotic properties can be improved by pasteurization.

Explain preparation and uses of vinegar.

Ans i. Mixture of bacterial strains like Acetobacter and Glucanobacter is mixed with ethanol for its microbial degradation.

ii. Acetic acid and other by-products are obtained through it. iii.Acetic acid is separated from mixture by rarefaction.

Acetic acid is bleached with the help of potassium ferrocynide. Then, it is pasteurized. Finally, very small quantity of SO2 gas is mixed to produce vinegar.

Vinegar is used in pickles, sauce, ketch-up, chutneys. vi.Chemically, vinegar is 4% acetic acid.

Why is it necessary to ban the use of plastic bags ?

Ans i. Plastic bags pollute our land, and water, litter our land – scapes, choke up drainages and cause floods, and finally reach the ocean harming the marine life.

Plastic bags do not decompose completely and the manufacturing process is energy intensive

Plastic bags and pieces are mistaken for food by animals and birds both on land and water congesting their digestive system and harming them.

Plastic bags are not easy to recycle and harmful to human. Plastic fragments reach humans through food charni and can even cause cancer.

Microbes which can decompose any compound as well as destroy the pathogens of cholera, typhoid, etc. are mixed with sewage ? Explain ?

Ans i. In villages, domestic sewage is disposed off either in nearby soil or in biogas plant.

However, in cities, sewage needs to be carried to processing unit and acted upon by microbial processes.

Microbes which can decompose any compound as well as destroy the pathogens of cholera, typhoid, etc. are mixed with sewage.

They release methane and CO2 by decomposition of the carbon compounds present in sewage. Phenol oxidizing bacteria decompose the xenobiotic chemicals present in sewage.

The sludge that settles down in this process can again be used as fertilizer. Water released after microbial treatment is environmentally safe.

Microbes are used for bioremediation of environment polluted due to sewage.

Now-a-days, instead of chemical catalysts, microbial enzymes are used in chemical industry ? Explain ?

Ans i. These enzymes are active at low temperature, pH and pressure; due to which energy is saved and erosion- proof instruments are also not necessary.

Enzymes carry out specific processes; hence unnecessary byproducts are not formed due to which expenses on purification are minimised.

In case of microbial enzymatic reactions, elimination and decomposition of waste material is avoided and enzymes can be reused.

Hence, such enzymes are eco-friendly.

Some examples of microbial enzymes are oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, ligases, etc.

Thus, now-a-days , instead of chemical catalysts, microbial enzymes are used in chemical industry.

i. What is clean technology?

ii.Why is it essential to ban plastic bags?

Ans i. The clean technology is the control over air pollution, soil pollution and water pollution with the help of microbes.

There is extensive use of plastic bags.

Even after many years, plastic is not decomposed and the contents in it do not dissolve leads to soil pollution.

Plastic bags thrown in drains obstruct the flow of streams, stagnant sewage water is a cause of many diseases.

The plastic bags are eaten by the cattle can lead to stomach cancer.

The poisonous gas mixes in the environment by burning plastic bags. Due to many such hazardous consequences, plastic bags should be banned.

Answer the following in detail 15

Substances obtained by microbial processing and their roles.

Substances obtained by microbial processing

Roles

Citirc, Malic and Lactic acid

……………

…………….

Protein binding

Nycin and natamycin

……………

……………

Antioxidants, vitamins.

Beta carotene, lycopenes, xanthenes, lutein

……………

…………….

Emulsifiers

Vanillin, Ethyl butyrate (fruit flavour), peppermint flavour, essence of various fruits and flowers

 

……………

 

……………

Artificial sweetener (low calorie)

Ans

Substances obtained by microbial processing

Roles

Citirc, Malic and Lactic acid

To impart acidity

Glutamic acid, Lysine, Tryptophan

Protein binding

Nycin and natamycin

Microbial restrictor

Ascorbic acid (Vit. C), B12, B2

Antioxidants, vitamins.

Beta carotene, lycopenes, xanthenes, lutein

Edible colours

Polysaccharides, glycolipids

Emulsifiers

Vanillin, Ethyl butyrate (fruit flavour), peppermint flavour, essence of various fruits and flowers

 

Essence

 

Xylitol, aspartame

Artificial sweetener (low calorie)

Cheese is produced on large scale from the abundantly available cow milk all over the world. First, chemical and microbiological tests of milk are performed. Some colours and microbes like Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus cremoris, and Streptococcus thermophilus are mixed with milk. It imparts sourness to the milk. After this, to impart the dense texture, whey (water in yoghurt) needs to be removed. An enzyme, rennet obtained from alimentary canal of cattle was being traditionally used earlier. However, an enzyme protease obtained from fungi is used at present to produce vegetarian cheese. The whey is separated from yoghurt (which has some other uses). Then, process of production of cheese is started through steps like cutting the solid yoghurt into pieces, washing, rubbing, salting, and mixing of essential microbes, pigments and flavors. Then, cheese is pressed and cut into pieces and stored for ripening.

Give any two microbes used in cheese production. (1)

Why the cheese is stored? (1) iii.What enzyme is used to prepare vegetarian cheese?(1)

iv.What processes are involved in cheese production? (2)

Ans i. Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus cremoris, and Streptococcus thermophilus. [ any 2]

The cheese is stored for ripening as to increase the flavour.

An enzyme protease obtained from fungi is used at present to produce vegetarian cheese.

Process of production of cheese is started through steps like cutting the solid yoghurt into pieces, washing, rubbing, salting, and mixing of essential microbes, pigments and flavors.

Production of beverages.

     

Name of beverage

Fruit

Microbe used

Role of microbe

     

Caffea arabica

 

Separating seeds from fruit

 

…………….

……………..

   
 

Candida, Hansenula, Pichia,Saccharomyces.

   

………………

…………….

Cocoa

     
 

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

   

Grapes

…………….

……………..

     
   

Fermentation of juice

 

Apple

……………

……………

     

Ans

     

Name of beverage

Fruit

Microbe used

Role of microbe

     

Caffea arabica

 

Separating seeds from fruit

 

Lactobacillus brevis

Coffee

   

Theobroma cacao

Candida, Hansenula, Pichia,Saccharomyces.

Separating seeds from fruit

 

Cocoa

 
 

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Fermentation of juice

 

Grapes

Wine

   
 

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Fermentation of juice

 

Apple

Cider

   

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